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BUS 5011 MARKETING

MANAGEMENT
FOR MBA-CM & MSc. Entrep

What has been Covered


Meaning and Scope of Marketing
Strategic Marketing Tasks
Analysing Industries, Markets, and
Competitors
Market Characteristics and Consumer
Buying Behaviour

What has not been Covered

Marketing Research
Marketing Mix
Managing Implementation Process
Special Topics of Marketing

Assessment

Term Paper (25%)..DONE


Assignment 10% DONE
Test 15% ..

Key terms..Reflection

Marketing vs. Market


Consumer Market vs. Business Market
Environment Internal vs. External
SWOT Analysis.
Industry Analysis five forces

MARKETING RESEARCH
Marketing Research Defined
Importance of Marketing Research
Marketing Research Process

Marketing Research Defined


Marketing Research is the systematic
and objective process of generating
information to support marketing
decisions
Marketing research is the systematic
design, collection, analysis, and
reporting of data and findings relevant
to a specific marketing situation facing
a particular organization

Importance of Marketing
Research

Marketing Research is the function


which links the consumer, customer,
and public to the marketer through
information
information used to:
identify and define marketing
opportunities and problems;
generate, refine and evaluate marketing
actions;
monitor marketing performance; and

Question
It is argued that Research is central
to understanding effective customer
satisfaction and customer
relationship programs. WHY?

The need for information


Marketing Research focuses on the use of
information as a source of strategic
advantage
As marketers, you should strive for a thorough
knowledge of customers, and their
attitudes, tastes, preferences
You should also want to keep an eye on
competition (e.g., benchmarking)
This information will help you making strategic
marketing decisions (e.g., 7 Ps next topic)
To sum.the function of marketing research is
to provide managers with information

Importance of Marketing Research


Used to identify and define
market opportunities and
problems

Information

Generate, refine, and evaluate


marketing performance

Monitor marketing performance

Improve understanding of
marketing as a process

11

Importance of Marketing
Marketing Research can tell us about:
Customers Perception about our
products/services
Areas to Improve
What new products or new product features do
customers want/prefer
How customers perceive us in relation to our
key competitors
Who our most loyal customers are?
Customer Segmentation
What marketing communications are most
effective?
New demand for our products/services
Any new location

Discussion Question
How might each of these Institutions use
marketing research?
A University
A Bank
Municipal Office
Ministry of Internal Affairs

Marketing Research Types


Basic Research: Attempts to expand
the limits of knowledge. Not directly
involved in the solution to a pragmatic
problem
Applied Research: Conducted when a
decision must be made about a specific
real-life problem
Examples.

Question
When should you Conduct Marketing
Research?

Determining When to Conduct


Marketing Research
Time Constraints Availability of Data
Is sufficient
time
available?
No

Yes

Information
already on
hand
inadequate?
No

Yes

Nature of the Decision

Is the
decision of
strategic
or tactical
importance?

Yes

No

Do Not Conduct Marketing Research

Benefits vs. Costs

Does the
information Yes
value
exceed the
research cost?
No

Conduct
Marketing
Research

Determining When to Conduct


Marketing Research

Time constraints
Availability of data
Nature of the decision
Benefits versus costs

Value of a Marketing Research Should


Exceed Its Costs
Decreased
uncertainty
Increased
likelihood of correct
decision
Improved
marketing
performance and
resulting higher
profits

Value

Research
expenditures
Delay of marketing
decision and possible
disclosure of
information to rivals

Costs

Question
A CRDB Bank would like to introduce their
products in rural areas in Mvomero
district; but they are not sure whether
there is a market for their products. As an
expert of marketing research, will you
advise the company to conduct
marketing research or not?

Marketing Research
Process

The Marketing Research


Process
Establishing the Need of Marketing Research
Define the Problem and Establish Research
Objectives
Formulate a Research Design
Identify types of information and Sources
Determine data collection methods
Design Data Collection Forms
Determine Sample plan and Size
Collect data
Prepare & Analyze the Data
Prepare & Present the Report

Establishing the Need of Marketing Research

When is Marketing Research not


needed?

The information is already available


Decisions need to be made now
You cant afford research
Costs outweigh the value of the research

Define the Problem


Research Problem differs when conducting
Applied Research or Basic Research
In Basic research; Problems stem from gaps
between what is known and what is not known.
Previous Research is very important
What is to be researched (the content, the
scope)?
Why is it to be researched (the decision that are
to be made)?
Problem is defined more specifically in Research
objectives,
Research objectives state what the researchers
must do.

Define the Problem


In Applied Research: the focus is to
solve a particular problem
Research Problem stems from the
problem facing the organization

Problem Formulation
Stage in the
Process

Typical Questions

Formulate problem

What is the purpose of


the study (i.e., to solve
a problem? Identify an
opportunity?, add
knowledge?)
Is additional
background information
necessary?
What are specific
research questions and
what information is
needed to make the

Determine Research Design


A research design encompasses the
methods and procedures employed to
conduct a scientific research.
It is the detailed blueprint to guide the
implementation of a research study
toward the realization of its objectives
It details the procedures necessary for
obtaining the information needed to
structure or solve marketing research
problems.

Types of Research Designs


Quantitative vs. Qualitative
Exploratory, Descriptive and Causal
Research Design
Survey vs. Case Study

Quantitative Research
Quantitative research is explaining a phenomena by
collecting numerical data that are analysed using
mathematically based methods (in particular
statistics)
Systematic scientific investigation of data and their
relationships
It is a formal, objective, systematic process in
which numerical data are utilized to obtain
information about the world" and "a research method
which is used to describe and test relationships
and to examine cause-and-effect relationships
The objective of quantitative research is to develop
and employ mathematical models, theories and
hypotheses pertaining to natural phenomena.

Quantitative Research
Use of Hypotheses
Hypotheses, are predictions the researcher makes
about the expected relationships among variables.
Testing of hypotheses employs statistical procedures
in which the investigator draws inferences about the
population

Use Closed-ended Questions

Lists answers which respondents select either one


or multiple responses
These questions produce more uniform answers
Questions must be exhaustive and mutually
exclusive

Qualitative Research
Qualitative research is the approach usually
associated with the social constructivist paradigm
which emphasizes the socially constructed
nature of reality.
It is about recording, analysing and attempting
to uncover the deeper meaning and significance of
human behaviour and experience, including
contradictory beliefs, behaviours and emotions.
The purpose of qualitative study is to understand,
describe, develop, discover/explore) the
(central focus) for (participants: person, process,
groups) at (site).

Qualitative Research
Use of Research Questions instead of
hypotheses
Use of open-ended Questions

Open-ended Questions: Allow respondents to


provide their own answers. This gives them
an opportunity to express their own thoughts
They tend to produce varieties of answers
and are more challenging to analyse (for
quantitative research)

Discussion Question
Formulate a topic which will use
quantitative approach
Formulate a topic which will use
Qualitative approach

Research Design
Based on purpose of study
Exploratory: to clarify the nature of the
problem
Descriptive: to describe the
characteristics of a phenomenon
(statistical description with no
explanation)
Causal: to establish cause-and-effect
relationships between variables (you
should have an expectation, e.g., training
and productivity etc

Examples..
Exploratory
Research
(Unaware of
Problem)
Our sales are
declining and
we dont know
why.
Would people be
interested in our
new product
idea?

Descriptive
Research
(Aware of
Problem)
What kind of
people are
buying our
product? Who
buys our
Competitors
product?
What features
do buyers prefer
in our product?

Causal Research
(Problem Clearly
defined)
Will buyers
purchase more
of our products
in a new
package?
Which of two
advertising
campaigns is
more effective?

Survey and Case study


designs

A survey study is designed for breadth rather


than depth.
It attempts to capture a populations characteristics
by making inferences from a samples characteristics
and then testing resulting hypotheses.
Use of large samples
Applied for Quantitative research

A case study places more emphasis on full


contextual analysis of a few events or conditions
Case studies rely on qualitative data and emphasize
the use of results for insight into problem-solving,
evaluation, and strategy.

Data Sources
Secondary Data: information that has
been collected for some other purpose
other than the research at hand
Primary Data: information that has
been gathered specifically for the
research objectives at hand

Data Collection Methods


Secondary Data: accessing data
through sources such as the office
documents, Internet and library
Primary Data:

Interview (Face to face, telephone)


Questionnaire (Mail, email, internet)
Observation
Focus Group discussion

Design Data Collection &


Forms

Questionnaire must be worded


objectively, clearly, and without bias in
order to communicate with respondents.
Interview guide
Questionnaire

Discussion Question
What are factors to be considered
when deciding whether to use
Interview or Questionnaire method?

Design Data Collection & Forms


Stage in the Process

Typical Questions

Determine data collection


method and forms

What is to be measured? How?


How should people be questioned?
Should the questionnaires be
administered in person, over the
phone, or through the mail?
Should electronic or mechanical
means be used to make the
observations?
Should structure or unstructured
items be used to collect the data?
Should the purpose of the study be
made known to the respondents?
Should rating scales be used in the
questionnaire?

Designing Data Collection


forms

Keep the questionnaire as short as possible.


Ask short, simple, and clearly worded
questions.
Start with demographic questions to help
respondents get started comfortably.
Use dichotomous (yes/no) and multiple choice
questions.
Use open-ended questions cautiously.
Pretest a questionnaire on a small number of
people.
Think about the way you intend to use the
collected data when preparing the
questionnaire

Question Types
Dichotomous
When going to your work place, do you
use a bus everyday?
Yes No

Question TypesMultiple
Choice
Which of the following transport means do
you use?
Walking
Bicycle/Motorbike
Own Car
Bus
Train
A ride with a friend

Question TypesLikert Scale


Indicate your level of agreement with the
following statement: Fastjet Airline
generally gives better service than
Precision Airways.
Strongly disagree
Disagree
Neither agree nor disagree
Agree
Strongly agree

Question TypesImportance Scale


Food service is _____ to me when selecting
which Airline to use.
Extremely important
Very important
Somewhat important
Not very important
Not at all important

Question TypesRating
Scale
Precision food service is _____.
Excellent
Very good
Good
Fair
Poor

Question Types
Intention to Buy Scale
How likely are you to purchase tickets on
Air Tanzania if in-flight Internet access
services were available?
Definitely buy
Probably buy
Not sure
Probably not buy
Definitely not buy

Question TypesCompletely
Unstructured (open ended question)
What is your opinion about Air Tanzania?

Question TypesWord Association


What is the first word that comes to your
mind when you hear the following?
Fastjet ________________________
Precision _____________________
Air Tanzania ________________________

Question Types
Sentence Completion
When I choose an airline, the most
important consideration in my decision is:
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
______________________________.

Determine Sample plan and


Size
Sample plan refers to the process used to
select units from the population to be
included in the sample.
A population is the total collection of
elements of which we wish to make some
inferences (to study)
Sampling frame is a list of all population
elements from which the sample will be drawn
Sample size refers to determining how many
elements of the population should be included
in the sample

Determine Sample plan and Size


Determine your population and the size
Determine necessary sample size
Sampling Techniques: Probability and NonProbability Sampling
Probability Sampling:
A sampling technique in which every member
of the population will have a known, nonzero
probability of being selected
You must have a Sampling frame

Non-Probability Sampling
Units of the sample are chosen on the basis of
personal judgment or convenience

Sampling Techniques
Probability Sampling
Simple random sample, Systematic
sample, Stratified random sample,
Cluster sample or area sample

Non-Probability Sampling
Quota sample, Purposive sample,
Convenience sample, Snowball sample

Design Sample Size


StageintheProcess

TypicalQuestions

Designsampleandcollectthe
data

Whoisthetargetpopulation?
Isalistofpopulationelementsavailable?
Isasamplenecessary?
Isaprobabilitysampledesirable?
Howlargeshouldthesamplebe?
Howshouldthesamplebeselected?
Whowillgatherthedata?
Howmuchsupervisionisneeded?
Whatoperationalprocedureswillbefollowed?
Whatmethodswillbeusedtoensurethequality
ofthedatacollected?

Collect Data
Data collection is very important because,
regardless of the data analysis methods
used, data analysis cannot fix bad data.
Non-sampling errors may occur during
data collection
Non-sampling error is the error that arises in a
data collection process as a result of factors
other than taking a sample

Data collection errors may be attributed


to field workers or respondents.
Researchers must know the sources of
these errors and try to minimize them.

Analyse Data
Data analysis involves entering data
into computer files, inspecting data for
errors, and running tabulations and
various statistical tests.
Data cleaning is a process by which raw
data are checked to verify that the data
have been correctly inputted from the
data collection form to the computer
software program

Analyze and Interpret the Data


Stage in the
Typical Questions
Process
Who will handle the editing
Analyze and
interpret the data of the data?
How will the data be coded?
Who will supervise the
coding and keypunching?
What tabulations /
statistical tests / analysis
techniques will be used?

Prepare Report
The last step is one of the most important
phases of marketing research.
Its importance cannot be overstated
because it is a report, or its presentation,
that properly communicates the results to
the client (for Applied Research).

Prepare Research Report


Stage in the
Process

Typical Questions

Prepare the
research report

Who will read the report?


What is their technical level
of sophistication?
Are managerial
recommendations called for?
What will be the format of
the written report?
Is an oral report necessary?
How should the oral report
be structured?

APPLIED RESEARCH REPORT


FORMAT

Title page
Contents page
The Executive summary
Introduction
Situation analysis and problem definition
Research methodology and limitations
Findings and analysis
Conclusions and recommendations
References and Appendices

Reflections.

Why should organizations have MR


department?
Give examples of Basic and Applied Research
Formulate a topic which will use quantitative
approach and one which will use Qualitative
approach
When do you use the following research
designs (give examples):
Exploratory, Descriptive, and Causal designs

Organisations should always conduct MR


when faced with a particular problem.
Critically discuss this statement

Review Questions
Why should an organization have a marketing research
department?
With examples, differentiate between applied and basic
research
Organizations should always conduct a marketing
research when they are faced with inadequate
information. Critically, discuss validity of this statement.
What are advantages and disadvantages of using
Personal Interview over a Questionnaire?
A research design is considered to be a blueprint for
any research to be conducted. Discuss this statement
by describing important research designs in marketing
research.