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Rekayasa Radio

TTG4B3

SEMESTER GANJIL 2015 2016

Microwave Link Design Process


Interference
analysis

Frequency
Planning

Propagation losses
Branching
losses
Other Losses

Fading
Predictions

Link Budget
Quality and
Availability
Calculations

Rain
attenuation
Diffractionrefraction
losses
Multipath
propagation

Microwave Link Design Process


Propagation losses
Free-space loss - when the transmitter and receiver have a clear, unobstructed line-ofsight
Lfsl=92.45+20log(f)+20log(d) [dB]
where f = frequency (GHz)
d = LOS range between antennas (km)

Vegetation attenuation
(provision should be taken for 5 years of vegetation growth)
L=0.2f
f=frequency (MHz)
R=depth of vegetation in meters (for R<400m)

R0.6(dB)

0.3

Microwave Link Design Process


Obstacle Loss also called Diffraction Loss or Diffraction Attenuation. One method of
calculation is based on knife edge approximation.
Having an obstacle free 60% of the Fresnel zone gives 0 dB loss

Microwave Link Design Process


Gas absorption
Primarily due to the water vapor and oxygen in the atmosphere in the radio relay
region. The absorption peaks are located around 23GHz for water molecules and 50
to 70 GHz for oxygen molecules. The specific attenuation (dB/Km)is strongly
dependent on frequency, temperature and the absolute or relative humidity of the
atmosphere.

Microwave Link Design Process


Gas absorption
Primarily due to the water vapor and
oxygen in the atmosphere in the
radio relay region. The absorption
peaks are located around 23GHz for
water molecules and 50 to 70 GHz
for oxygen molecules. The specific
attenuation (dB/Km)is strongly
dependent on frequency,
temperature and the absolute or
relative humidity of the atmosphere.

Microwave Link Design Process


Rain Attenuation
Two types of attenuating mechanisms:
absorption and scattering caused by the rain drops.
Falling raindrop
Not round due to air resistance
Horizontally polarized waves are attenuated more than
vertically polarized waves.

Microwave Link Design Process


Rain Attenuation
Rain intensity [mm/h].
For the calculations the cumulative distribution of rain intensity, i.e. The
percentage of time during which a given rain intensity is exceeded, is
interesting.
ITU-R presents the cumulative distribution of rain intensity for 15 different
rain zones on earth

R intensity
R d effthat is exceeded 0.01% of all time
The reference level is theArain
(R0.01).
deff is effective path length in km , R is specific attenuation in
dB/km

Microwave Link Design Process


Rain Attenuation

Microwave Link Design Process


Rain Fading
The probability that a given fade margin is exceeded, on an annual basis:

11.628

Arain 10

0.546 0.29812 0.172 log 0.122 x R 0.01


FM

AR0.01 is The rain attenuation exceeded 0.01 % of the time


FM is Fade Margin

Microwave Link Design Process


Rain Fading
Conversion between yearly values and worst month values:
Pmonth=2.85 x Pyear 0.87
Pyear =0.3 x Pyear 1.15
Formulas based on climatic constants.

Microwave Link Design Process


FADING
Fading is defined as the variation of the strength of a received radio carrier
signal due to atmospheric changes and/or ground and water reflections in the
propagation path. Four fading types are considered while planning links. They
are all dependent on path length and are estimated as the probability of
exceeding a given (calculated) fade margin.

Microwave Link Design Process


FADING
Multipath fading
Flat fading
Frequency-selective fading

Microwave
Link Design
Process
FADING
Flat fading

Microwave Link Design Process


FADING
Frequency-selective fading
Atmospheric multipath fading. When the atmospheric conditions are such
that layers or stratifications of different density exist, as indicated earlier,
ducting can occur. If the composition of the layers is such that the microwave
beam is not trapped, but only deflected, as in Fig. 4.30, the microwave energy
can reach the receiving antenna by paths that are different from the direct
path. This multipath reception produces fading because the two waves are
rarely received in phase. If they arrive in complete antiphase, for a few
seconds a drop in received power, which can be 30 dB or more, is observed.)

Microwave Link Design Process