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You are on page 1of 15

VENKAIAH

Assistant Professor

Mechanical Engineering Department

NIT Warangal 506 004

Disclaimer

The content presented here is not entirely my own. Some portions are taken from

different sources with great regard. This content is solely for class room teaching

and not for any commercial use.

losing heart."

- Robert G. Ingersoll

(Total unit cost)

=

Cost of Machining

+

Non-productive cost

+

Cost of tool

+

Tool changing cost

Note: Fixed costs, like material cost, are not taken into account because

they will not affect optimization.

2

Where,

Cm = labor cost per unit time + overhead charges (depreciation +

indirect labor + maintenance)

L

Tm = Machining time for a single pass

Nf

where,

L = Actual length of cut

= Lw + A + O

( A, O = approach and over run)

N = spindle speed, rpm

f = tool feed, mm/rev

Speed, N , is determined from cutting velocity, V

DN

V

m/min

where D is dia. of the job before cut

1000

DL

Tm

3

1000Vf

Where,

Cn = Preparation cost + Set up cost + Loading and unloading cost +

Idle time cost + other non-machining time costs

Tn = Non-machining time

Usually expressed as a fixed cost in Rupees per piece.

T

= Ce m

T

where,

Ce Cost of a cutting edge

For HSS tools:

Initial cost of tool + Regrind cost x Number of regrinds

Ce

Number of regrinds + 1

For Carbide and Ceramic tools with throw away tips:

Cost of insert

Ce

Number of cutting edges per insert

= Number of tool changes x Time required for each change x Cost

T

= m TcCm

T

where,

Tc Tool chaning time (Time required to grind and change a tool)

Non-productive cost

Total production cost per piece, Cp = CmTm + CnTn Ce

Tm Tm

TcCm

T T

1/ n

DL

DL V

DL V

= Cm

+ CnTn Ce

C

T

m c

1000Vf

1000Vf C

1000Vf C

1

1

DL

DL V n 1

DL V n 1

= Cm

+ CnTn Ce

CmTc

1

1

n

1000Vf

1000 f C

1000 f C n

1/ n

C p

V

=0

i.e,

Cm

DL

1000 f

1

DL

+

0

C

1

e

V 2

1000 fC n

1 n 1 V

n 2

CmTc

DL

1

1000 fC n

1 n 1 V

n 2

0

8

1

1

C

1

e

2

n

V

C

Cm

1

1

C

T

1

m c

2

Cn

V

Cm

Cm V

Tc

Cm 1 Tc

V

Cm CmTc

C

V

C

n 2

1 n 1 V

CmTc

n 2

Ce

V

1 1

n Ce

C

V

1 n 1 Ce

C

V

Cm CmTc Ce

C

1

1

1

Cn

1

1

Cn

1 n 1 V

V

V

1 1 V 2 C

n

e

C

C

n 1 V

Ce

n 1 Tc

C

m

n 1 V

n2

n 2

1 n 1 V 2

1 n 1

1 n 1

Optimum cutting speed for minimum cost

C

Vopt

n

Ce

1 1 T

n c

9

C

m

1

Rate of production, Rp

Tp

1

V

=

T

c

V2

C

Where,

Tp

Total manufacturing time

1 n 1 V 2

Tm

DL

DL V

Tn Tc

1000Vf

1000Vf C

To maximize Rp , minimize Tp

V

n

C

1

n 1 Tc

V

Optimum cutting speed for Max. Rp

=Tm Tn Tc

Tp

Vopt

1 Tc

Topt 1 n 1 Tc

i.e.,

DL

1000 f

1

DL

+

T

1

c

V 2

1000 fC n

1 n 1 V

n 2

0

10

Tool changing

cost

Non-productive

cost

11

Problem

A 100 mm long 35 mm diameter bar is to be turned at a feed of 0.26

mm/rev. the operating cost is Rs. 10 per minute and the tool cost is Rs. 75

per edge. The tool changing time is 4 min. a carbide tool is used with two

cutting fluids for which the tool life equations are as given below:

Cutting fluid 1

Cutting fluid 2

VT0.22=67

VT0.32=67

12

Solution

D = 35 mm, L = 100 mm, f = 0.26 mm/rev.,

Cm= Rs. 10/min, Ce= Rs. 75, Tc = 4 min

V1

C1

V2

Ce

n1 1 Tc

C

m

C2

Ce

n 2 1 Tc

C

m

n1

n2

24.1m/min,

T2 = 24.44 min

DL

x35x100

1.43 min

1000V1 f 1000x29.63x0.26

DL

x35x100

Tm2

1.73 min

1000V2 f 1000x24.1x0.26

Tm1

13

Solution

Cp1 = CmTm1 Ce

Tm1 Tm1

TcCm

T1

T1

1.43

1.43

x4x10 Rs.18.33/Component

40.77 40.77

T

T

Cp2 = CmTm 2 Ce m 2 m 2 TcCm

T2

T2

= 10x1.43 75x

= 10x1.73 75x

Cp1 Cp2

1.73

1.73

x4x10 Rs.25.44/Component

24.44 24.44

14

Problem

A tool used in a turning operation is of brazed-carbide tip type. Its cost is

Rs. 450 and on average it can be reground ten times. The cost of regrinding

is Rs. 45. The lathe cost is Rs. 2 lakh and is used 8 hours/day, 5 days/week

and 50 weeks/year. Its cost is to be amortized over 10 years and the

machine overheads are 100%. The operators wage is Rs. 20/hour and the

operator overheads are 100%. The tool life equation is VT0.25 = 7 where V is

in m/s and T is in s. The tool changing time is 4 min and handling time per

component is 5 min. The cutting distance per component is 100 m.

Calculate:

a) the minimum production cost and

b) the minimum production time.

Sol.

15

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