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Chapter 1

Whole Numbers

WHOLE
NUMBERS

Concept of whole
numbers

MATHEMATICS FORM 1
WHOLE NUMBERS

WRITING &
READING

COUNTING

PLACE VALUE

CONCEPT OF
WHOLE NUMBER

WRITING

AND
READING WHOLE
NUMBERS

COUNTING

NUMBERS

IDENTIFY

VALUE

WHOLE

PLACE

Whole numbers are used


in currency.

WHOLE
NUMBERS
Whole numbers are a

set of counting numbers


that starts with 0, 1, 2,
3, 4, 5, .
The smallest whole
number is zero (0)

WRITING AND READING WHOLE


NUMBERS

ONE

SIXTY
TWENTY-ONE

FOURTYTHREE

ONE
HUNDREDS

FOUR THOUSAND
AND TEN

COUNTING WHOLE NUMBERS


Count

on in
tens from 30
to 100.

Count

back in
hundreds
from 1500 to
700.

30, 40, 50, 60,


70, 80, 90,
100.

1500, 1400,
1300, 1200,
1100, 1000,
900, 800, 700.

PLACE VALUE
The

value of a digit
depends on its place in
the whole number. Each
place has a different
value which is known
as the place value.

What is the number


represented by the diagram?

100
HUNDREDS

30
TENS

6
UNITS

The number of
students in the
school:
1 389 students
Activity 1: What is the place
value
of 9?

Answer:
THOUSANDS

HUNDREDS

TENS

UNITS

8 9

The numbers of
butterfly in the
garden :
Activity
2: What
is the place
3 291
butterflies
value
of 3?

Answer:
THOUSANDS HUNDREDS

TENS

UNITS

1
Exercises

SYSTEM OF WRITING
WHOLE NUMBERS
Thousand

Million
Hundred
Million

Ten
Million

Unit

Hundred
Thousand

Ten
Thousand

Hundred
Unit

Hundred

Ten

Unit

THANK TOU

Understanding
Whole Numbers
Lesson 1-1

standard form a number is written using digits and


place value (the regular way to write numbers).
expanded form a number is written as a sum using
the place and value of each digit.

Vocabulary

Place Value Chart

How To Read a Large


Number
Numbers are grouped in
sets of three (each set is
called a period).
Only read three numbers
at a time.
Say the name of the
period that the numbers
are in.
Say and for the

4,658,089
Millions period

Thousands period

Ones period

Four million, six hundred fifty-eight thousand,


eighty-nine.

Example

Comparing
Numbers
Line up the numbers
vertically (up and down)
by the ones place (or the
decimal, if there is one).
Start at the left and
compare the digits.
Move towards the right
until you find a difference.

< means less


than.
> means greater
than.
=
means
equal
Just a Reminder
to.

Example

45,312

<

45,321

45,312
45,321
1 is less than
2

Example 2 Put the numbers in


order from least to greatest.
321; 345; 354; 29; 1,013; 312; 332

smallest
largest

321
345
354
29
1013
312
332

29 < 312 < 321 < 332


345 < 354 < 1,013

Rounding Whole Numbers

Rounding to a specific place:


Identify the place
(nearest hundred, for example)
Look at the number immediately to th
right.
Is it 5 or higher? Round up.
Is it 4 or lower?
It stays the same.
All digits to the right of the specified p
become zeros.

Round to the nearest hundred:


4,856

10,527

234,567

8,648,078

And the answers are


4,900 10,500 234,600
8,648,100

Try these examples

Addends:
Sum

numbers being added

or total: The answer or result of addition.

Commutative

property of addition: two or


more numbers can be added in either order
without changing the sum

Associative

property of addition: When more


than two numbers are being added, the addends
can be grouped by two at a time in any way.

Key Terms

Addition &
Subtraction

Addition
Addition

occurs when you join


two numbers together. These
numbers are called addends.

4 + 2 = ?
Addends

You add the two addends


together to get a sum.

4 + 2 = 6
Sum

Lets add large


numbers.
12 and 34
Line up
Line up
numbers

the digits
on top of
each
other
starting

12
+ 34

Lets add large


numbers.
Line up the digits on
top of each other
starting with the
number on the right
(the rightmost digit,
which is called the
ones place.)

12 and 34
Line up
numbers

Then add the numbers


that are on top of each
other like you normally
would add numbers.

12
+ 34
6

Lets add large


numbers.
12 and 34
Line up
numbers

Line up the digits


on top of each
other starting with
the number on the
right (the rightmost
digit, which is
called the ones
place.)
Then add the
numbers that are
on top of each
other like you

12
+ 34
6

Lets add large


numbers.
Line up the digits
on top of each
other starting with
the number on the
right (the rightmost
digit, which is
called the ones
place.)

12 and 34
Line up
numbers

And do the same


for the other
column of numbers.

12
+ 34
46

Adding larger numbers...


You may have to carry
numbers to the next column
of numbers being added if
the first column is over 9.
231
+459

Adding larger numbers...


You may have to carry
numbers to the next column
of numbers being added if
the first column is over 9.
231
+459
0

Since
9+1=10,
we will
write the
last digit

Adding larger numbers...


You may have to carry
numbers to the next column
of numbers being added if
1
the first column is over 9.
231
+459
0

Since
9+1=10,
we will
write the
last digit

Adding larger numbers...


You may have to carry
numbers to the next column
of numbers being added if
1
the first column isNow
overwe
9.

will
add
231
the 3 and
+ 4 5 9 5, and
0 also the 1

Adding larger numbers...


You may have to carry
numbers to the next column
of numbers being added if
1
the first column is Now
over 9.
we

will
add
231
the 3 and
+459
5, and
9 0 also the 1

Adding larger numbers...


You may have to carry
numbers to the next column
of numbers being added if
1
the first column is Now
over 9.
we

will add
the 2 and
+ 4 5 9 4 that in
the far
90
231

Adding larger numbers...


You may have to carry
numbers to the next column
of numbers being added if
1
the first column
is over 9.

Now we
2 3 1 will add
+ 4 5 9 the 2 and
4 that in
6 9 0 the far

With some practice, you will


be able to successfully add
positive whole numbers!
This will be useful in all
aspects of this class AND in
your everyday life.
Lets look at a real-world
example...

You graduated from Islamic


College!!!!

As some of your
graduation gifts, you
receive gifts
from family and friends with
the values of
$50, $129, $78,

You will simply need to ADD all of


those numbers up to get the total.

5 0
1 2 9
7 8
+

2 3

Keep in mind to line up


he places, add each column,
and carry if the number
has more than one digit!

0+9+8+3=20

5 0

1 2 9
7 8
+

2 3
0

Keep in mind to line up


e places, add each column,
and carry if the number
has more than one digit!
2+5+2+7+2=18
2

5
0

1 2 9
7 8
+

2 3
8 0

5 0

1
p in mind to line up
1 2 9
ces, add each column,
7 8
carry if the number + 2 3
more than one digit!
2 8 0

1+1=2

2
1

5 0
1 2 9
7 8

2 3

28
0
You got $280
in gifts!
Congratulations!!!

Adding in columns - Uses no equal sign

5
+
5
10
Simple

897
Answer
is called su
+
368
Table of Digits
1265
Complex

Subtracting whole
numbers is the
inverse operation of
adding whole
numbers.
What is Subtraction?

Subtraction
Subtraction

occurs when you


take one number away from
another number.

5 - 2 = ?

When you subtract the


numbers, you end up with
the difference.

5 - 2 = 3

Difference

Subtractions with one


digit are usually fairly
easy.
Things start getting
complicated when you
have more than one
digit and you cannot
remove the number at
the bottom from the
number on top such as

Since you
could
not
Example
remove 8

You can also write the problem without the


tens and the ones to make it look simpler as
illustrated below

5424
- 756
Another example

Always
start with
the ones.

Borrow a 10 from 2
tens
The problem becomes

Step #1

Borrow 1 hundred from 4


hundreds. 1 hundred = 10
tens. Then add 10 tens to 1
ten to make it 11 tens

Step #2

Borrow 1 thousand from 5 thousands. 1


thousand = 10 hundreds. Then add 10
hundreds to 3 hundreds to make it 13
hundreds
Then, just subtract now since all
numbers at the bottom are smaller than
the number on top

Step #3

717

4,987
- 2,158

212

3,230
- 320

1,910
2,
2
9
Lets8
Try Some!

Now you should be able to


onclusion

add and subtract single


digit numbers by using
pictures to solve the
problems given to you.
You should also understand
what an addend, sum, and
difference is.

Multiplication

In Arithmetic - Indicated by times sign (x).

Learn Times Table


6 x 8 = 48

63

Complex Multiplication - Carry result to next column.

Problem: 48 x 23
+2

48

X 23
4

+2

48

X 23
144

+1

48

X 23
144
6

+1

48

X 23
144
960
1104

Same process is used when multiplying


three or four-digit problems.
64

MULTIPLICATION PRACTICE EXERCISES


1.

a.

21
x 4
84

b.

81
x 9
729

c.

2.

a.

87
x7
609

b.

43
x 2
86

c. 56
x 0
0

d.

99
x 6
594

3.

a. 24
x 13
312

c.

d.

55
x 37
2035

b. 53
x 15
795

64
x 5
320

49
x 26
1274

d. 36
x 3
108

65

MULTIPLICATION PRACTICE EXERCISES (cont)


4.

a.

94
x 73
6862

b.

5.

a.

347
x 21
7287

b.

6.

a. 360
x 37
13,320

7.

a.

493
x 216
106,488

99
x 27
2673

c.

843
x 34
28,662

c.

b.

884
x 63
55,692

c. 111
x 19
2109

b.

c.

568
x 432
245,376

34
x 32
1088

d. 83
x 69
5727

966
x 46
44,436

987
x 654
645,498

66

Division

15

Finding out how many times a divider goes into a


whole number.

5=3

15

3=5

67

Shown
Shown by
by using
using aa straight
straight bar
bar

10 5
48 5040
48
2 40
240
0

or
or

sign.
sign.

48 goes into 50 one time.

1 times 48 = 48
50 minus 48 = 2 & bring down the 4
48 goes into 24 zero times.
Bring down other 0.
48 goes into 240, five times
5 times 48 = 240
240 minus 240 = 0 remainder

So, 5040 divided by 48 = 105 w/no remainder.


Or it can be stated:

48 goes into 5040, 105 times


68

DIVISION PRACTICE EXERCISES


62
7 434

1.

211
a. 48 5040

b.

2.

13
a. 9 117

310
b. 12 3720

3.

256
a. 23 5888

687
b. 56 38472

4.

98
a. 98 9604

67
b. 13 871

5.

50
a. 50 2500

123
b. 789 97047

c.

92
9 828

101
c. 10 1010

69

DIVISION PRACTICE EXERCISES (cont)


9000
3 27000

6.

7
a. 21 147

b.

7.

61
a. 32 1952

101
b. 88 8888

8.

67 r 19
a. 87 5848

858 r 13
b. 15 12883

9.

12 r 955
a. 994 12883

22 r 329
b. 352 8073

70


+
COMBINED
OPERATIONS
x

Problem: Evaluate the following arithmetic expression:


3+4x2
Solution:

Student 1

Student 2

3+4x2

3+4x2

=7x2

=3+8

= 14

= 11

To add and to subtract:


we do the operations
from left to right

To multiply and to divide:


do the operation from left
to right

To perform computation involving


combined operations,
a)first, multiply or divide from
left to right
b)then, add or subtract from left
to right

To perform computations involving


combined operations that include brackets ( ),
work that brackets first
then, multiply or divide from left to right
lastly, add or subtract from left to right

SUMMARY
COMBINED OPERATIONS

To perform computations involving combined operations:

1.Work the brackets ( ) first.


2.Then, multiply or divide.
3.Finally add or subtract from left to right.