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Situational

Influences
From : Consumer Behavior - A Framework
John C. Mowen
Michael S. Minor

Situational Infuences on
Consumer Behavior

Even with a list, the consumer is


overwhelmed by choices!!!

Key Concepts
Consumer
Situations
Types of situational
influences
Influence of
physical
surroundings
Store location
effects
Store atmosphere

Task definition
Categories of giftgiving situations
Influence of time
Time differences
across cultures
Types of
antecedent states
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Consumer Situations . . .
consist of temporary environmental factors
that form the context within which a
consumer activity occurs at a particular
place and time.
include factors that:
Involve the time and place in which a consumer
activity takes place
Explain why the action takes place
Influence consumer behavior
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The Environment and the Exchange Process


Cultural
Environment

Economic
Environment

Subcultural
Environment

Regulatory
Environment
Group/ family
Processes

Situational Influencers
Individual
Processes

Buying
Unit

Exchange
Process

Marketer
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Belks Situational Elements

Physical surroundings
Social surroundings
Time
Task definition
Antecedent states

Physical Surroundings . . .
. . .are the concrete
physical and spatial
aspects of the
environment that
encompass a
consumer activity.
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Effects of Music on Shoppers


In a supermarket
store study, sales
increased daily by
38% when slower
music was played.
A restaurant study
found when slow
music was played,
liquor sales
increased.

Effects of Music

Playing peppy music


while on hold or
waiting in line doesnt
make time pass more
quickly.
Louder music
increases pace of
events perception
but raises estimates
of time durations.

continued

The Effects of Crowding


on Consumers
Density - how closely packed people are
(i.e., the physical arrangements of people in
a space).
Crowding - the unpleasant feelings that
people experience when they perceive that
densities are too high and that their control
of the situation has been reduced to
unacceptable levels.

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High - and Low-density...


High-density situations may be beneficial In fun situations, density enhances pleasure.

There is usually an optimal level of density.


Other elements (time, convenience) as
important for shopping behavior.

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Consumer Crowd Behavior


In some circumstances consumers behave
like hysterical crowds
Large groups may cause high physiological
arousal among each of the members
The high arousal results in the tendency of each
member of the crowd to act on a dominant idea
or tendency
Each person in a crowd becomes inconspicuous
and individual responsibility is lost.
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Store Location . . .
..

. influences consumers from several


perspectives.
Consumers have cognitive maps of a citys
geography that may not match the actual
locations of retail stores.
Image transference exists: The image of
anchor stores affects that of smaller stores
in the same shopping center.
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Store Layout . . .

. . . is the physical organization of a store that creates


specific traffic patterns, assists retailers in the
presentation of merchandise, and helps create a
particular atmosphere.

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Atmospherics . . .

. . . refers to how managers manipulate the design


of the building, interior space, layout of aisles,
texture of carpets and walls, scents, colors,
shapes, and sounds experienced by customers to
achieve a certain effect.

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The physical characteristics and surrounding


infuence of a retail store that is used to create
an image in order to attract customers.
FACTORS AFFECTED BY ATMOSPHERICS
1.Dressing rooms
2.Bathrooms
3.Music
4.Signs
5.Odors
6.Floors or walls
7.Lighting
8.Aisles
9.Carts
10.Check out counters

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Atmospherics and Shopping


Behavior
Atmosphere

Emotional
Response

Influences
Layout
Sounds
Smells
Texture...

Behavior

Influences
Pleasure/
displeasure
Arousal/
Boredom

Time in
Store
Affiliation
Buying

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Olfactory Cues...
Shoppers perceive
higher quality goods
in scented stores.
Odors should be
consistent with
store offerings.
These cues are
expensive to
maintain.

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Effects of Spatial
Arrangements
Space modifies/shapes
behavior
Retail store space
affects consumers
Retail stores affect
attitudes, images
Stores can create
desired consumer
reactions
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Narrow aisles

Social Surroundings . . .
. . . deals with the
effects of other
people on a
consumer in a
consumption
situation.
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The Task Definition . . .


. . . the situational reasons for buying or consuming a
product or service at a particular time and place.
Usage situations form the context in which a product is
used and influence the product characteristics sought by
a consumer.

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Occasion-Based
Marketing Opportunities
Sometimes a product
is locked into one
usage situation,
limiting market
potential.
Consumers may come
to consider the
product inappropriate
for all other
situations.

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Or this very familiar Pinoy treat

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Used to be, lechon was only for special occasions

Gift-Giving Motivations
Low

High

Voluntary

Altruism

Reciprocity
creation

Obligatory

Ritual
obligation

Love,
friendship

Gift
Type

Degree of Self-Interest

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Gift Behavior and Gender...


Women start shopping earlier for Christmas (October vs.
November)
Spend more time shopping/gift (2.4 vs. 2.1 hours)
Are more successful (fewer of their gifts are exchanged)
But men spend 50% more/gift.

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Self-Gifts...
Premeditated,
indulgent
Rewarding an
accomplishment,
therapy for
disappointment
Baseball
glove/Front-end
loader

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Time...
Individual differences in conception
Time as a product
Time as a situational variable

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Time: Individual
Differences...
People Can Use Time in Four Different Ways:

Work
Necessities
Housework
Leisure

Obligatory

Discretionary

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Individual Time Differences Are


Influenced by Culture...
Linear Separable. There is a past, present,
future. The future is expected to be better:
the idea of progress. Activities are a
means to an end.
Circular Traditional. The future is like the
present. Do today only what has to be done
today. Time and money arent related.
Procedural Traditional. Task Orientation.
Meetings take as long as necessary.

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Linear
Separable
. There is
a past,
present,
future.

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Time as a Product
Many Purchases Are Made to Buy Time

The time-buying consumer is a


consumer who engages in buying time
through these products
Time-saving qualities are a key
promotional idea
Time can act as a product attribute
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Perception Management,
Time, and Lines
The single, serpentine line is most popular
Multiple lines actually move people faster
But jumping from line to line creates stress.

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Time as a Situational Variable


How much time a
consumer has available
to do a task influences
the buying strategy used
to select and purchase
the product.
With limited time, there
is less information
search.
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Situational Infuences on
Consumer Behavior

The Essence of Time by Letty Jacinto-Lopez,


PhilStar, 21 January 2007
The age group of a mall clientele changes depending
on the time of day
10-11.30am: young mothers with babies and
toddlers; to enjoy the clean quiet space
12nn-2pm: students and office staff: students
grow tired of cafeteria food, and office people
want a change of scenery or environment
3-4.30pm: retirees, senior and ex-employees
meet up for coffee with others to catch up on
business, politics, scandals and celebrities
5-9pm: students, young dating or married
couples; time to be together before having to go
home
10pm: lovers and muggers

Antecedent States . . .
. . . are the temporary physiological and
mood states that a consumer brings to a
consumption situation.
Physiological State: Hunger.
Mood State: Happy feelings.

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Some
solutions
.
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Antecedent States . . .
. . . Can lead to problem recognition.
. . . Can change the feeling
component
of hierarchy of effects
. . . Mood states infuence behavior, e.g.
shopping to alleviate loneliness.
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Usage Situation, Person,


and Product Interactions
The Buying Act Results From Interactions
That Occur Among:
Consumption situations
Characteristics of the buying unit/person
The product or service being offered
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Managerial Implications
Positioning. Situational variables offer
multiple opportunities for positioning.
Research. May indicate which situations
present opportunities for new products.
Marketing Mix. Firms may be able to
present time-saving attributes as a tradeoff
for a higher price.
Segmentation. An increase in the female
work force presents opportunities to market
to the segment of males doing more of their
own shopping.

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Situation-by-Product Interaction
High

Ginger Ale

Low

Gatorade
Tennis
Match

Party
Mixer

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