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What is a Photon?
Under the photon theory of light, a photon
is a discrete bundle (or quantum) of
electromagnetic (or light) energy. Photons
are always in motion and, in a vacuum, have a
constant speed of light to all observers, at
the vacuum speed of light (more commonly
just called the speed of light) of c = 2.998
x 108 m/s.

In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the

minimum unit of any physical entity involved in an
A photon, for example, is a single quantum of light,
and may thus be referred to as a "light quantum".
Basic Properties of Photons
According to the photon theory of light, photons . . .
•move at a constant velocity, c = 2.9979 x 108 m/s (i.e. "the speed of
light"), in free space

•have zero mass and rest energy.

•carry energy and momentum, which are also related to the frequency nu
and wavelength lamdba of the electromagnetic wave by E = h nu and p
= h / lambda.

•can be destroyed/created when radiation is absorbed/emitted.

•can have particle - like interactions ( i . e . collisions ) with

electrons and other particles , such as in the Compton
effect .

Fun Photon Facts

The photon is an elementary particle, despite the fact that it
has no mass. It cannot decay on its own, although the energy of
the photon can transfer (or be created) upon interaction with
other particles. Photons are electrically neutral and are one of
the rare particles that are identical to their antiparticle, the
Exposure:The amount of ionizations
produced in air by x-ray or gamma
photons.The unit is Roentgen,the SI unit
is the coulomb per kilogram.
Activity: A measure of the
intensity of radioactivity in a
sample of material quantified by
the number of radioactive
disintegrations occurring in a
given quantity of material per
unit time. Unit is the curie ,the
SI unit is Becquerel.
Absorbed Dose (D):The energy imparted
to matter by ionizing radiation per
unit mass of irradiated material. The
absorbed dose is expressed in unit
rad ;the SI unit is the gray(Gy).
Dose equivalent (H):The product of
absorbed dose in rads (SI:Gray) in
tissue,a quality factor(Q) and other
modifying factors (N).Dose equivalent
is expressed in the unit rem
is the Sievert.

Dose Equivalent = rads x Q x N

Traditional SI Conversion
Exposure Roentgen (R) Coulomb/kg 1 R= 2.54 x10-
4 coul/kg

Activity Curie (Ci) Becquerel (Bq)1 Ci = 3.7 x

1010 Bq
1Bq=2.7 x 10-
Absorbed Rad /Gray Rad/Gray 1 Gy = 100
Dose (D) (Gy) Rad
Dose Rem/Sievert Sievert (Sv) = 1 Sv = 100
equivalent(H) Rem = Rad x Gray x QF Rem
Photon interactions with
Scattered photon
Compton effect

Fluorescence photon Secondary

( Characteristic radiation ) photons
Incident Non interacting
photons Recoil photons
( Photoelectric electrons
effect )
Electron pair (simplified
E > 1 . 02 MeV representation)
Photoelectric Effect: Occurs between
tightly bound inner shell electron and
incident x-ray photon. The inner shell
electron filled by outer shell electron
and excess energy is emitted as
characteristic radiation. The
photoelectric effect occurs when photon is
totally absorbed by the inner shell
electron and a photoelectron is emitted.
EFFECT x-ray

Incident photon

Compton Scatter: In Compton scatter
incident photon interact with loosely
bound outer shell electron resulting
is scattered photon. This is a cause
of most scattered radiation in
diagnostic radiology.

Scattered Photon
Incident photon

Compton Electron
Coherent scatter : - a term
sometimes used for Rayleigh
scattering; Incident photon changes
direction without losing energy.

Similar with that of Bremsstrahlung

x - ray production
Rayleigh Scattering


Incident photon
Pair Production: High energy photon
interact with the nucleus of an
atom. The photon disappear and
energy is converted in to an
electron and positron.



Incident photon
Photodisintegration: When a high
energy photon is absorbed by a
nucleus resulting in immediate
disintegration of the nucleus.
Diagnostic x-rays are produced when
electrons with high energies of 20
to 150 Kev are stopped in matter.
X-rays are produced by two
different process known as :
2.Characteristic x-ray production
Bremsstrahlung (Breaking or General)
X-rays are produced when incident
electrons interact with nuclear
electric fields which slow them down
and change their direction.Some of the
kinetic energy is emitted as x-ray
photon.Bremsstrahlung x-ray produce
continous spectrum of radiation.
Bremsstrahlung x-ray production
increases with the accelerating
voltage (KV) and atomic number (z) of
Characteristic radiation: Characteristic
radiation is produced when the inner shell
electron of the anode target are ejected by
the incident electron. The inner shell vacancy
are filled by outer shell electrons and the
energy difference is emitted as characteristic
Excess energy may also be emitted as Auger
K-shell electron is emitted only if incident
electron have energies greater than K-shell
binding energy.
For tungsten = 70 kv Molybdenum = 20 kv
L-shell electron also normally accompanies K-
shell radiation.L-shell characteristic x-rays
have very low energies and are absorbed by the
glass of the x-ray tube.
X Ray tube components

• Cathode: heated filament which is the

source of the electron beam directed
towards the anode
• tungsten filament
• Anode (stationary or rotating): impacted
by electrons, emits X Rays
• Metal tube housing surrounding glass (or
metal) X Ray tube (electrons are
traveling in vacuum)
• Shielding material (protection against
scattered radiation)

Parts of fixed Anode x-ray Tube

High Tension Generator

The Glass Envelope and Vacuum
The Tube shield
Cooling mechanism
Filtration mechanism
High Tension Generator

The high tension voltage is applied to anode of x-ray

tubegives the kinetic energy for the electron to leave
cathode and bombard anode.

For diagnostic radiology 40-120 KVP is used.

This high voltage are provided by step up transformer

or high tension generator.
The cathode
Cathode is negative pole of the x-ray tube. It is a metal structure
supporting the filament, which on heating emits electrons.
Focusing Cup: Where the filament is located in the cathode
Filament made up of tungsten wire which tolerates high temperature
up to 3370*c

Has high resistance so as to produce amount of heat needed to boil

the electron

Shaped in helical or spiral winding to increase surface area for

emitting electrons.

Its size is small so as to produce electron beam covering small area.

Cathode structure

• Cathode includes filament(s) and

associated circuitry
• tungsten material : preferred because of
its high melting point (3370°C)
• slow filament evaporation
• no arcing (spark)
• minimum deposit of W on glass envelope
• To reduce evaporation the emission
temperature of the cathode is reached just
before the exposure
• in stand-by, temperature is kept at ±
1500°C so that 2700°C emission
temperature can be reached within a
second 27
Cathode structure

• Modern tubes have two filaments

• a long one : higher current/lower resolution
• a short one : lower current/higher
• Coulomb interaction makes the electron
beam divergent on the travel to the
• focal spot increased  lower image
• Focalisation of
electrons is crucial !
The Anode
A piece of tungsten in a form of plate of 2mm thick ,
rectangular or circular in shape larger than the focal area is
embedded on a thick copper rod.

This is essentially a metal plate to receive the electron

which bombard it.
It is so designed the that bombarded electron gives great
amount of heat(99%) and small amount of x-ray(1%)
Anode has relatively larger surface area so produced heat
can be dissipated and tube damage can be prevented.

Tungsten and copper is used for this purpose but why?

Tungsten –
As a target:-Highmelting point, high atomic number (efficient
to produce x-ray), good conductor of heat, can be shaped and
made smooth as required.
As a filament:-High thermionic emission, can be converted
into wire, high melting point and does not vaporize easily.

Good conductor of heat so dissipates heat to outside to outside
of tube and also serves as electrode of positive pole (anode)
where high KV current is connected.
H o w to p ro d u ce fa ste r a n d p o w e rfu l x -ra y?
T h e la rg e r th e d iffe re n ce b e tw e e n in th e
ch a rg e ( p o te n tia ld iffe re n ce ) b e tw e e n a n o d e
a n d ca th o d e th e fa ste r th e e le ctro n
a cce le ra te to w a rd s th e a n o d e .

T h e fa ste r th e e le ctro n g o e s, th e h a rd e r th e y
co llid e w ith th e a n o d e a n d m o re p o w e rfu lx -
ra y a re p ro d u ce d .
W h a t is th e e ffe ct o f kV P a n d m A s o n x -ra y
p ro d u ctio n ?

m A s– In cre a sin g th e m A s it in cre a se th e

q u a n tity o f th e x -ra y p ro d u ctio n .
kV p —In cre a se in kV P it in cre a se s th e q u a lity
o f th e x - ra y p ro d u ctio n .
X Ray tube characteristics
• Anode mechanical constraints
• Μα τ ε ρ ι α λ : τ υ ν γ σ τ ε ν ,
ρ ηε ν ι υ µ , µ ο λ ψβ δ ε ν υ µ ,
γ ρ απ ηι τ ε
• Focal spot : surface of anode impacted by
• Anode angle
• Disk and annular track diameter (rotation
frequency φ ρ ο µ 3,000 τ ο 10,000
ρ ε ϖ ο λ υ τ ι ο ν σ /µ ι ν υ τ ε )
• Thickness ⇒ µ α σ σ α ν δ
µ α τ ε ρ ι α λ (ϖ ο λ υ µ ε ) ⇒
η ε α τ χ α π α χ ι τ ψ
• Anode thermal constraints
• Instantaneous power load (heat unit) 33

• Heat loading time curve

Focusing of the electron beam
The electron spreading away from the filament are brought together
by means of an electric field which exist between anode and cathode.

The filament sits in a slot in the cathode.

The filament and slot are carefully designed in shape, size and
position so that the emitted electron can only leave the filament
through the slot.

By this electron leaving the filament comes together in a beam so as

to cover small area on the anode, also called FOCAL SPOT of x-ray

Focal Spot:The exact area of the anode where the electron hit the
Focal spot size and imaging

• Focal spot Large ⇒ image unsharpened

• Improving sharpness ⇒ small focal spot size
• For mammography focal spot size ≤ 0.4 µ µ
ν ο µ ι ν αλ
• Small focal spot size ⇒ ρ ε δ υ χ ε δ τ υ β ε
ο υ τ π υ τ (λ ο ν γ ε ρ ε ξ π ο σ υ ρ ε
τ ι µ ε )
• Large focal spot allows high output (shorter
exposure time)
• Balance depends on organ movement (fast moving
organs may require larger focus)

Anode angle

• The Line-Focus principle

•Α ν ο δ ε τ αρ γ ε τ π λ ατ ε ηασ α
σ ηαπ ε τ ηατ ι σ µ ο ρ ε
ρ ε χ τ αν γ υ λ αρ ο ρ
ε λ λ ι π σο ι δ αλ τ ηαν
χ ι ρ χ υ λ αρ
•τ η ε σηαπ ε δ ε π ε ν δ σ ο ν :
• φ ι λ α µ ε ν τ σ ι ζ ε α ν δ
σ η α π ε
• φ ο χ υ σ ι ν γ χ υ π σ α ν δ
π ο τ ε ν τ ι α λ
• δ ι σ τ α ν χ ε β ε τ ωε ε ν
χ α τ η ο δ ε α ν δ α ν ο δ ε
•Ι µ αγ ε ρ ε σο λ υ τ ι ο ν
ρ ε θ υ ι ρ ε σ α σµ αλ λ φ ο χ αλ
σπ ο τ
•Η ε α τ δ ι σσι π ατ ι ο ν
ρ ε θ υ ι ρ ε σ α λ αρ γ ε σπ ο τ 36
Anode heel effect

• Anode angle (from 7° to 20°) induces a

variation of the X Ray output in the
plane comprising the anode-cathode
• Absorption by anode of X photons with
low emission angle
• The magnitude of influence of the heel
effect on the image depends on factors
such as :
• anode angle
• size of film
• focus to film distance
• Anode aging increases heel effect
Anode heel effect

• The heel effect is not always a negative factor

• It can be used to compensate for different
attenuation through parts of the body
• For example:
• thoracic spine (thicker part of the patient towards
the cathode side of the tube)
• mammography

Conditions necessary for the
production of x-rays

• There must be a High Voltage (potential


• There must be Fast Moving Electrons.

• There must be a Target.

• It must be in Vacuum.
W h a t is 1 5 % ru le fo r kV P ?
If th e kV P is in cre a se d b y 1 5 % th e
d e n sity is d o u b le d .

W h a t is sa n te s’ s R u le o r e q u a tio n ?

kV P = 2 x th icke n d d o f th e b o d y p a rt in cm )
+ 40
Production of

Characteristic x-ray

Incident photon

The gas envelope and vacuum
The electron that leave the cathode have unimpeded passage to
the anode.

If there is no vacuum it collide with the gas with in the tube as

a result of which they loose the energy before colliding with
the anode.

The end result would be production of less intense and less

penetrating x-ray .
The tube shield
Made up of cylindrical aluminum or aluminum-lead alloy.

It will not allow any x-ray to escape out of the x-ray tube expect
through the glass window which is provided to allow only the
primary beam from focal spot.

Metallic casearound the x-ray tube that provides protection

against radiation risk and electrical risk. Theoretically it should
be ray proof and shock proof.

Ray proof is impossible according to physic of x-ray

absorption but significantly reduces amount of radiation
coming through the absorber within he safety limit.
Cooling Mechanism of x-ray tube
Amount of heat production=KV x mA x Seconds

The greater the factor are used the more heat are produced.
If the dissipation of heat were not to take place simultaneously
with heat production, the melting point of tungsten(3360*c)will
be soon reached.

Heat dissipation occurs by-

1.Conduction-through the solid part of anode-copper

2.Convection-through the oil surrounding the tube(glass and

copper block transmit the heat to oil in which tube is immersed.
3.Radiation-occur through the vacuum of the tube to glass
Filtration in the x-ray tube
X-ray beam comprises many wavelength in it.A filter acts by
absorbing preferably the useless but harmful longer
wavelengths in the beam.
There by only shorter wavelength x-ray leaves the tube which
would cast sharp radiographic image.

This useful beam still has to pass through:

1.Thin window in the glass envelope
2.Oil within the shield
3.Lead lined plastic cover aperture call the portal.
(these are also called inherent filtration of x-ray tube.)
Scattered Radiation
When x-ray strikes the body part ,secondary radiation are
produced which have longer wavelength than the primary beam.
These secondary radiations are scattered in all direction and
produce a veil of fog on the diagnostic x-ray film.
Scattered radiation affect the image of part at a distance from the
film by fogging.

Small parts like hands and feet shows negligible scattering but
pelvic and trunk shows maximum scattering.
Control of scattered radiation
Some radiographic accessories are used to cut down the secondary
radiation fog:
1.Shutters/diaphragms:-The shutter diaphragm have lighting
arrangement above them, incorporated inside the tube shield which
shows the field size (after operating the shutters) on the patient’s body.
2.Cones:Cones of different sizes and shapes are available to restrict field
of radiography to the obsolete required cone , PNS cone
3 . G rid : T h e se a re th e d e vice s w h ich co n sist o f
se rie s o f a lte rn a te strip e s o f le a d ( o r tu n g ste n ) a n d
w o o d ( o r sim ila r ra d io lu ce n t m a te ria l). T h e x -ra y
p e n e tra te s g rid a n d fa llo n th e film to p ro d u ce
im a g e . T h e sca tte re d x - ra y a re cu t o ff b y le a d
strip e s.
Typ ica lly 2 -5 tim e s: “ B u cky fa cto r” o r g rid ra tio ( T h e
re la tio n o f th e h e ig h t o f th e le a d strip s to th e w id th
o f th e n o n o p a q u e m a te ria lb e tw e e n th e m .
C o m m o n g rid ra tio s a re 2 : 8 , 2 : 1 2 , a n d 2 : 1 6 )

G rid s a re m a in ly tw o typ e s:
1 . S ta tin o n a ry g rid s: ( LY S H O LM G rid )
2 . M o vin g G rid : a . Po tte r- b u ckyg rid b . O scilla tin g g rid
c . C ro ss g rid
A Scattered and primary x-ray photons reaching
the same point P on film. B Scattered photon is
removed by antiscatter grid, while primary
photon gets through.
X-ray Film Cassette. Diagram demonstrating a
sheet of x-ray film between two fluorescent
screens within a light-proof cassette.
Emulsion:Film consist of an approximately 10
micrometer thick emulsion supported by mylar
base which is 150 micrometer thick.
The emulsion contains silver halide grains
which can be sensitized by radiation or
light to hold a latent image.
Several light photon(approximately 4 ) must
be absorbed to sensitize each grain.
Processing of Films
1.Proper mixing of the chemical solution
according to manufacture instruction.
2.Unloading of the exposed film from the
cassette, writing patient ID with copying pencil
and then mounting it on to proper hanger.
3.Developing Process
4.Rinsing process
5.Fixing process
6.Washing Process
7.Drying process
Developing:Development of radiographic film
is a chemical process which reduces x-ray
exposed silver bromide of the x-ray film into
plain metallic silver,in a finely divided
form to bring out the latent image.
Sensitized grains are reduced in the
developer by the addition of electron.
A developed grain results in a speck of
silver that appears black on the film.Grains
with no latent image are also developed but
at a much slower rate
Contains 4 main chemical mixed with
distilled water
1.Developing /Reducing agent:2 main chemicals
a.Hydroquinone-slowly build up back tones
and contrast
b.Elon –quickly builds up gray tones
2.Preservative agent contains sodium
sulfite which protects the rapid oxidation
of the developing agent
3.Activator:Contains sodium carbonate ,also
called alkalizer which provides necessary
alkaline medium.
4.Restrainer:Contain potassium bromide
restrain the developing agent from
developing the unexposed silver halide
The fixing: Stops further development thus
establishing a permanent image on the film,
removes dissolved silver halide crystals,
hardens the emulsion.
There are 4 main chemicals:
1.Fixing agent /clearing agent: Ammonium
thiosulfate or sodium thiosulfate –Removes the
unexposed and any remaining undeveloped silver
halide crystals.
2.Preservative:Sodium sulfide –slows the rate of
oxidation and prevents deterioration of the
fixing agent.
3.Hardening agent: Potassium alum: Shrinks and
hardens the gelatin emulsion.
4.Acidifer:Contain acetic acid which further
stops development by neutralizing the alkali of
the developer.
Other 2 chemicals:
1.Wetting agent:A form of detergent
which reduces surface tension and
helps the film to dry faster

2.Cutting agent:A combination of

potassium ferrocyanide and fixer
which can be used in an emergency
to lighten film that have been
accidentally overexposed or
What is difference between Spatial resolution and
contrast resolution?
Spatial resolution is a measure of the ability of an
imaging technique to demonstrate that two nearby
objects are, indeed, separate objects. It is measured
in "line pairs per millimeter," referring to the
ability of a modality to demonstrate that very small
pairs of lines are indeed separate lines and not a
single line. Of the digital cross-sectional modalities,
CT has the highest spatial resolution.
Contrast resolution-The density difference between the
two adjacent area on the radiograph.
Refers to the ability of an imaging modality to
render different objects or tissues as different
shades of gray. Of the digital cross-sectional
modalities, MRI has the highest contrast resolution.
Radiation from Natural
• Normally 1-3 mSv/year
• In areas of high background, 3-13
•LD 50/60 = 4 Gy (The LD50/60 is

that dose at which 50%of the

exposed population will die within
60 days)

Occupational, medical and public
• Occupational exposure
• All exposures of workers incurred:
• in the course of their work, with the exception of
exposures excluded from the Standards

• exposures from practices or sources exempted by the

Occupational, medical and public
• Medical exposure:
• Exposure incurred by patients
• as part of their own medical or dental diagnosis or
• by persons, other than those occupationally exposed,
knowingly while voluntarily helping in the support and
comfort of patients;
• by volunteers in a programme of biomedical research
involving their exposure

Occupational, medical and public
• Public exposure:
• Exposure incurred by:
• members of the public from radiation sources,
• excluding any occupational or medical exposure and
the normal local natural background radiation
• but including exposure from authorized sources and
practices and from intervention situations.

Dose limits (occupational
• The occupational exposure of any worker should
be controlled so that the following limits be not

Application Occupational dose limit
20 mSv per year, averaged over
Effective dose defined periods of 5 years
50 mSv in any single year
Annual equivalent dose in:
The lens of the eye 150 mSv
The skin 500 mSv
The hands and feet 500 mSv

PUBLIC - Optimization under
• effective dose of 1 mSv in a year
• in special circumstances, effective dose of 5 mSv
in a single year, provided that the average over
five consecutive years in less than 1mSv per
• equivalent dose to lens of the eye 15 mSv in a
• equivalent dose to skin of 50 mSv in a year.

Dose limits (public)
Application Public dose limit
Effective dose 1 mSv in a year (*)
Annual equivalent dose in:
The lens of the eye 15 mSv
The skin 50 mSv

(*) In special circumstances, an effective dose of up to 5 mSv

in a single year provided that the average dose over five
consecutive years does not exceed 1 mSv per year.

Dose Limits (ICRP 60)
• Occupational Public
• Effective dose 20 mSv/yr averaged* 1 mSv in a
• over 5 yrs.
•Annual equivalent

•dose to

• Lens of eye 150 mSv 15 mSv

• Skin 500 mSv 50 mSv
• Hands & Feet 500 mSv

• * with further provision that dose in any single yr > 30

mSv (AERB) and =50 mSv (ICRP)
•N.B.: M.P.D. 1931 = 500 mSv, 1947=150 mSv, 1977=50

• in 1990=20 mSv 69

We live with Can kill

1-3 mSv 4000 mSv

Where to stop, where is the safe point?

What are the effects of radiation?

Radiation health effects


Somatic somatic & hereditary somatic and
Clinically attributable epidemiologically hereditary expressed
in the exposed attributable in large in the foetus, in the live
populations born or descendants

Biological effects of ionizing

• Deterministic
• e.g. Lens opacities,
skin injuries,
• infertility,
removal), etc
• Stochastic
• Cancer, genetic

Deterministic effects

• Existence of a dose
threshold value (below
this dose, the effect is not
• Severity of the effect
increases with dose
• A large number of cells are

Radiation injury from an industrial sou

Threshold Doses for Deterministic

•Cataracts of the lens of the eye 2-10 Gy

•Permanent sterility
Severity of
•males 3.5-6 Gy effect
•females 2.5-6 Gy
•Temporary sterility
•males 0.15 Gy
•females 0.6 Gy


Radiosensitivity [RS]

• RS = Probability of a
cell, tissue or organ of
suffering an effect per
unit of dose.
• Bergonie and
Tribondeau (1906):
“RS LAWS”: RS will be
greater if the cell:
• Is highly mitotic.
• Is undifferentiated.
• Has a high cariocinetic


High RS Medium RS Low RS

Bone Marrow Skin Muscle
Spleen Mesoderm Bones
Thymus organs (liver, Nervous
Lymphatic heart, lungs…) system
Eye lens
(exception to the RS laws)

Factors affecting the
• Physical

% survivor cells
• LET (linear energy transfer):  RS  LET
• Dose rate:  RS
• Chemical  LET
• Increase RS: OXYGEN, cytotoxic drugs.
• Decrease RS: SULFURE (cys, cysteamine…)
• Biological G0
• Cycle status: M

•  RS: G2, M G2 G1
•  RS: S
• Repair of damage (sub-lethal damage
may be repaired e.g. fractionated dose)

Effects of antenatal exposure
• Lethal effects can be induced by relatively
small doses (such as 0.1 Gy) before or
immediately after implantation of the embryo
into the uterine wall. They may also be
induced after higher doses during all the
stages during
0.1 Gy
intra-uterine development.


Pre-implantation Organogenesis Foetus

Effects of antenatal exposure
• Mental retardation:
• ICRP establishes that mental retardation can be
induced by radiation (Intelligence Quotient score
< 100).
• It occurs during the most RS period: 8-25 week of
• Risks of antenatal exposure related to mental
retardation week 15-25 week
Severe mental retardation Severe mental retardation
• with a risk factor of with a risk factor of

0.4/Sv 0.1/Sv

Radiation Doses in Radiological
(as multiple of chest x-ray)
Relative Dose Received
.05Arm , head , ankle & foot ( 1 )
0.15 Head & Neck ( 3 )
0.49 Head CT ( 10 )
0.92 Thoracic Spine ( 18 )
1.0 Mammography , Cystography ( 20 )
1.22 Pelvis ( 24 )
1.4 Abdomen , Hip , Upper & lower femur ( 28 )
Ba Swallow ( 30 )
Obsteric abdomen ( 34 )
1.7 Lumbo - sacral area ( 43 )
2.15 Cholangiography ( 52 )
2.59 Lumber Myelography ( 60 )
3.0 Lower abdomen CT male ( 72 )
3.61 Upper Abdomen CT ( 73 )
3.67 Ba Meal ( 76 )
3.8 Angio - head , Angio - peripheral ( 80 )
4.0 Urography ( 87 )
4.36 Angio - abdominal ( 120 )
6.0 Chest CT ( 136 )
Lower Abd . CT fem . ( 142 )
Ba enema ( 154 )
7.13 Lymphan . ( 180 )
9.0 0 50 100 150 200
number of chest x-rays
Typical effective doses from
diagnostic medical exposures
Diagnostic Typical effective Equiv. no. of Approx. equiv. period of
procedure dose (mSv) chest x-rays natural background

Chest (single PA 0.02 1 3 days


Skull 0.07 3.5 11 days

Thoracic spine 0.7 35 4 months

Lumbar spine 1.3 65 7 months

Fro m : R e fe rra lC rite ria Fo r Im a g in g . C E ,

Typical effective doses from
diagnostic medical exposures
Diagnostic Typical effective Equiv. no. of Approx. equiv. period of
procedure dose (mSv) chest x-rays natural background

Hip 0.3 15 7 weeks

Pelvis 0.7 35 4 months

Abdomen 1.0 50 6 months

IVU 2.5 125 14 months

Fro m : R e fe rra lC rite ria Fo r Im a g in g . C E ,

Typical effective doses from
diagnostic medical exposures
Diagnostic Typical effective Equiv. no. of Approx. equiv. period of
procedure dose (mSv) chest x-rays natural background

Barium swallow 1.5 75 6 months

Barium meal 3 150 16 months

Barium follow 3 150 16 months


Barium enema 7 350 3.2 years

Fro m : R e fe rra lC rite ria Fo r Im a g in g . C E ,

How to measure doses

Chemical They need

Absolute (Fricke dosimeter)
to know a
methods characteristic
(ionization chamber)


methods TL


Thankyou ……