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# Konsep Dasar Geodesi

## Disamping pengetahuan dasar tentang penentuan posisi horizontal

dan vertikal dengan cara konvensional maupun GPS beberapa
istilah2 dasar yang mendominasi didalam dunia survai dan
pemetaan.

Geoid
Ellipsoid
Undulasi
System Proyeksi Peta
Transformasi Datum

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Geoid
Geoid Model
Scaled15 000 times

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Geoid
Equipotential surface / field gravity surface or zero surface
Corresponds approximately to mean sea level, continued under
continents.

## Irregular and multiple undulations.

No analytical definition.
It has a physical reality but bad geometric definition.
Models performed by astro-geodesic and gravimetric measurements.

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Ellipsoid

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System Tinggi

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Helmert's Projection
N is the Geoid-Ellipsoid Separation.
H is the Orthometric Height.
h is the Ellipsoidal Height..
P is the angle between vertical and
the normal to the ellipsoid.
Strictly speaking:
h = N + H cos(P)
Because P is very close to zero, cos(P)
is so close to 1.0 that the difference is
negligible. Hence
h=N+H

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Referensi Tinggi

## MSL elevation is roughly equivalent to orthometric height (H), the

technical name for height above the geoid.

Geoid height (N) is the separation between the geoid and the
ellipsoid. It can be plus or minus.

## Ellipsoid height (h) is the distance above or below the ellipsoid

(plus or minus). Ellipsoid height is also called geodetic height

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## Korelasi antara Geoid, Ellipsoid Local dan Ellipsoid Global

n
geoid

v
n

n : normal to ellipsoid

global ellipsoid

v : vertical ( geoid)
local ellipsoid

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Map Projection
Projection: The Big Slide Show
Map projection is the process
through which the curved surface
of the earth is represented on a
flat piece of paper. This process
can be thought of as a slide show
where:
The light source is at the center
of the earth.
The surface of the earth is the
slide.
The screen is the map.

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Projeksi Peta
Projeksi Mercator

Normal

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Transverse

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Oblique

Projeksi Peta
Projeksi Kerucut

Normal

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Oblique

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Projeksi Peta
Projeksi Plane

Polar

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Oblique

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Equatorial

Projeksi Peta

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Projeksi Peta

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DATUM
What is a datum?

## A datum is a point, a line, or surface used as a reference in

surveying and mapping. A geodetic datum is a mathematical
model of the earth used to calculate the coordinates on any map.
Why is it important?
The main problem oil and gas industry working in many coutries
use their own datum when making their maps and doing their
survey. These are referred to as local datums. The same area may
have two datums giving each point two different coordinates. In
addition datums generated by individual countries do not match
at their boundaries.
Transformation Parameters

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Datum Shift

Z2
GEOG. / GEOC.
Ellipsoid 1
CARTO. / GEOG.
Projection 1
Ellipsoid 1

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Y2
X2 GEOC. / GEOG.
Ellipsoid 2

DATUM 1

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GEOG. / CARTO.
Projection 2
Ellipsoid 2

dX, dY, dZ
ROT X,Y,Z
Scale factor

E2, N2

2, 2

DATUM
SHIFT

DATUM 2

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