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HTML

HYPERTEXT MARKUP
LANGUAGE
PART I

WHAT IS HTML?
HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language
HTML is not a programming language, but a
markup language

markup language is used to describe the contents


of a page.
A markup language uses a set of markup tags.

WEB BROWSERS

A web browser is a software application used to


read HTML documents and display them as web
pages
The browser does not display the HTML tags, but
uses the tags to interpret the contents of the page.
Browsers automatically add some empty space (a
margin) before and after each heading.
They also add an empty line before and after a
paragraph
Examples:

Internet

Explorer
Google Chrome
Mozilla Firefox

HTML TAGS
HTML markup tags are usually called HTML
tags.
They are keywords (tag names) surrounded by
angled brackets , e.g., <html>
The majority of these tags come in pairs

An

start tag or opening tag, e.g., <html>


An end tag or closing tag, e.g., </html>. The end tag
must have a forward slash before the tag name.

There are some tags that do not have an end tag,


e.g., <br>
The syntax for HTML tags is

<tagname>content</tagname>

HTML tags are not case-sensitive

HTML TAGS (CONTINUED)

The first tag is the <html> and </html> tags


Text

The next tag that is used in the <body> and


</body> tags
Text

between these tags describes the web page.

between these tags is the visible page content

Another tag is the <h> and </h> tags


Text

between these tags displays a heading


There are different headings that denotes different
sizes

h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6

Another tag is the <p> and </p> tags


Text

between these tags displays a paragraph

HTML DOCUMENT

An HTML document is also called a web page.


HTML documents contain HTML tags and plain
text
A website is made up of multiple web pages.
HTML text document

HTML DOCUMENT

The image below shows how the HTML text


document is converted into a webpage

HTML ELEMENTS

HTML documents are defined by HTML elements


An HTML element is everything between the start
and end tags, including the tags. The text between
the tags is known as the element content.
Example:
The <p> element
<p>This is my first paragraph.</p>
The element has a start tag <p> and an end tag
</p>
The element content is: This is my first paragraph

HTML ELEMENTS

An HTML element with no content is called an


empty HTML element
One such HTML element is the line break.

This

element has an opening tag but no closing tag,


e.g.,<br>

The HTML document is as follows:

HTML ELEMENTS

The first diagram shows the webpage without the


<br> tag
The second diagram shows the webpage with the
<br> tag

HTML ELEMENTS

Another empty HTML element is the <br/> tag


This is used when you want to have a line break
(new line) without starting a new paragraph.
The diagrams below is used without the <br/> tag

HTML ELEMENTS

The diagrams below is used with the <br/> tag

HTML ELEMENTS

Another empty HTML element is <hr /> tag


This

tag creates a horizontal line in an HTML page


It can be used to separate content

HTML HEADINGS

HTML headings are defined with the <h1> to


<h6> tags
The HTML document and corresponding web page
are as follows:

HTML HEADINGS

You must use the HTML headings tags only for


headings.
DO NOT use the heading tags to make text big or
bold.
H1 headings should be used as the major
headings, followed by h2, then h3, etc

SAVING AN HTML DOCUMENT


USING NOTEPAD
After typing the HTML, you must save your file as
an HTML file.
Go to File, then select Save As
When the window appears, select the folder in
which you want to save your file
In the File Name box, you must type in the name
of the file, followed by .htm or .html

E.g.,

index.htm

In the Save as type box, select the option All


Files from the drop down menu.
Then click on Save