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Ionising Radiation

Ionising Radiation
Particles and electromagnetic
radiation
released by the decay of unstable
atoms

Ionising Radiation
Alpha particles
Beta particles
Neutrons
Gamma rays
X rays

Ionising Radiation
Alpha particles
Beta particles
Neutrons
Gamma rays
X rays

Radionuclides

Ionising Radiation
Alpha particles
Beta particles
Neutrons
Gamma rays
X rays

Elecromagnetic
radiation

Non Ionisng

Ionising

Half - life
The time
taken for the
activity of a
radionuclide
to decay by
half its value

Half - life
Isotope
Half-Life
Tritium
12.4 y
Carbon 14 5730 y
Sulphur 35 87.4 d
Phosphorus 33 25.6 d
Phosphorus 32 14.3 d
Iodine 125 60.1 d

What is radiation used


for?

Power generation

Laboratori
es

Radioactive
tracers

Medical

Thickness gauges

Units

Activity (Becquerel)
1 Becquerel = 1 disintegration per
second

Absorbed Dose (gray)


1 gray (Gy) = energy absorption of 1
joule/Kg

Dose Equivalent (sievert)

quivalent dose (Sv) = Absorbed dose (Gy) x Q

Dose Equivalent (sievert)

quivalent dose (Sv) = Absorbed dose (Gy) x Q

Q is "quality factor, dependent upon


radiation type

Photons, all energies


Electrons and muons, all
energies
Protons
Alpha particles and other
atomic nuclei

Q
1
1
2
20

Effective Dose

ffective dose = Equivalent dose (Sv) x N

Effective Dose

ffective dose = Equivalent dose (Sv) x N

N is weighting factor dependent upon


tissue type

Bone marrow, colon, lung,


breast, stomach
Gonads
Bladder, brain, salivary glands,
kidney, liver, muscles,
oesophagus, pancreas, small
intestine, spleen, thyroid,
uterus
Bone surface, skin

N
0.12
0.08
0.05

0.01

Annual dose limits for


employees and members of the
public
Dose

Effective dose

Employee Trainees Member


s
(age
s of
(age 18+)
<18)
Public
20 mSv
6 mSv
1 mSv

Equivalent dose for eye

150 mSv

50 mSv

15 mSv

Equivalent dose for skin

500 mSv

150 mSv

50 mSv

Equivalent dose for the


hands, forearms, feet and
ankles

500 mSv

150 mSv

50 mSv

Regulation 11 of Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999

Geiger Counter

Effects

Alpha particles
Stopped by sheet of paper or skin

Beta particles
Stopped by few mm of aluminium

Gamma rays

Stopped by several metres of concrete or cms of lead

Short term effects


Cellular damage
Radiation sickness

Long term effects


Cancer
Genetic damage
Reproductive effects

Internal Hazards
Exposure to radioactive particles
by :
inhalation
ingestion
skin absorption / penetration

Radiological riskDose (Sv) Risk of Death


Living in Cornwall
Brain scan
Average annual
Radon
Transatlantic flight
Chernobyl
Chest X-ray
135 g brazil nuts

7800
5000
2700
1000
69
46
20
10

Source: Health Protection Agency

1 in 3,200
1 in 5,000
1 in 10,000
1 in 25,000
1 in 35,000
1 in 500,000
1 in 1.25 million
1 in 2.5 million

Radiological
Protection

Containment

Shielding

Distance

Distance

Dose rate
(uSv/hr)

1 metre

2 metres

0.25

4 metres

0.06

Restrict exposure
duration and
frequency

Photo credits
www.chemistryexplained.com/images/chfa_04_img0782.jpg
www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/ph_radi

o10.gif
www.flickr.com/photos/redfiremg/3952257530/sizes/z/in/pho
tostream/
http://kilby.sac.on.ca/physics/sph3u/1aNuclear/NonMedicalUses/nonmedicaluses.htm
Stock.XCHNG (www.sxc.hu)
www.OHTA.net

http://www.slideshare.net/mikeslater
occhygiene@btconnect.com
http://diamondenv.wordpress.com
Twitter @diamondenv

Mike Slater

Mike Slater, Diamond Environmental Ltd. (occhygiene@btconnect.com

This presentation is distributed under the Creative Commons


Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
UK:International Licence