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Metode penelitian

Theoretical Framework

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and Hypothesis Development

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Pentingnya kerangka pemikiran

Pentingnya kerangka pemikiran • Theoretical framework represent your beliefs on how certain phenomena ( or variables

Theoretical framework represent your beliefs on how certain phenomena (or variables or concepts) are related to each other (a model ) and an explanation of why you believe that these variables are associated with each other (a theory)

Process of building a theoretical framework :

Introducing definitions of the concepts or variables in your model;

Developing a conceptual model that provides a descriptive representation of your theory;

 Coming up with a theory that provides an explanation for relationships between the variables in
 Coming up with a theory that provides an explanation
for relationships between the variables in your model
variabe
variabe
Hubungan antar
Didasarkan Didasarkan pada pada
Hubungan antar
variabel
teori teori tertentu tertentu
l
variabel
l

Konsep – konstruk - variabel

Konsep – konstruk - variabel • a concept : is a fundamental category of existence. In"Concepts" . Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University. Retrieved 6 November 2012. Ajang Mulyadi 3 " id="pdf-obj-2-4" src="pdf-obj-2-4.jpg">

a concept : is a fundamental category of existence. In contemporary philosophy, there are at least three prevailing ways to understand what a concept is: 1)

Concepts as mental representations, where concepts are entities that exist in the brain.

Concepts as abilities, where concepts are abilities peculiar to cognitive agents.

Concepts as abstract objects, where objects are the constituents of propositions that mediate between thought, language, and referents.

Construct (philosophy of science), a hypothetical object whose phenomenal

existence depends upon a subject's mind Variabel : konstruk atau konsep yang memiliki variasi nilai

Variabel : is anything that can take on differing or varying values.

An attribute : is a specific value on a variable.

Atribut Atribut entities entities 1 1 object variabe entities entities concept concept l s Atribut Atribut
Atribut Atribut
entities entities
1
1
object
variabe
entities entities
concept concept
l
s
Atribut Atribut
entities entities
2
2

1)

Eric Margolis; Stephen Lawrence. "Concepts". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford

University. Retrieved 6 November 2012.

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Macam-macam Variabel

Tipe nilai/atribut :

Continuum: variabel yang nilainya dapat dinyatakan dalam angka pecahan;

Descrete : variabel yang nilainya hanya dapat dinyatakan dalam bilangan bulat;

Posisi/kedudukan :

Independent (predictor) atau variabel bebas : adalah variabel yang dalam kerangka pemikiran penelitian kita ditempatkan sebagai variabel yang mempengaruhi variabel lain;

Dependent (criterion) atau variabel terikat : variabel yang dalam kerangka pemikiran penelitian kita diduga dipengaruhi oleh variabel bebas;

Moderating : a variable that influences or moderates the relation between two other variables and thus produces an interaction effect.

Intervening : a variable that explains a relation or provides a causal link between other variables.

Workforce diversity independent Managerial Expertise moderating
Workforce
diversity
independent
Managerial
Expertise
moderating

Organizatio

nal

Effectivenes

s

dependent

Workforce diversity independent Managerial Expertise moderating Organizatio nal Effectivenes s dependent Organizatio nal Effectivenes s Workforce

Organizatio

nal

Effectivenes

s

dependent

Workforce

 

diversity

 

independent

Creative

 

Synergy

 

Mediating/

Workforce diversity independent Managerial Expertise moderating Organizatio nal Effectivenes s dependent Organizatio nal Effectivenes s Workforce
Workforce diversity independent Managerial Expertise moderating Organizatio nal Effectivenes s dependent Organizatio nal Effectivenes s Workforce

intervening

Komponen Kerangka Pemikiran

A good theoretical framework identifies and defines

the important variables in the situation that are

relevant to the problem and subsequently describes

and explains the interconnections among these

variables;

Basic features :

The variables considered relevant to the study should be clearly defined;

A conceptual model that describes the relationships between the variables in the model should be given;

There should be a clear explanation of why we expect these relationships to exist

Penjelasan konsep variabel secara teoritis, sampai menemukan indikator untuk mengukur variabel tersebut Deskripsi kerangka pemikiran Model
Penjelasan konsep variabel secara
teoritis, sampai menemukan
indikator untuk mengukur variabel
tersebut
Deskripsi kerangka
pemikiran
Model hubungan antar
variabel
HIPOTESIS
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BAB BAB 2 2
BAB
BAB
2
2

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HIPOTESIS

A hypothesis : a tentative, yet testable, statement, which predicts what you expect to find in your empirical data;

A hypothesis : as logically conjectured relationships between two or more variables expressed in the form of testable statements

Hypotheses are derived from the theory on which your conceptual model is based and are often relational in nature.

FORMAT HIPOTESIS

If-Then Statements :

If employees are more healthy, then they will take sick leave less frequently

Directional hypotheses :

The greater the stress experienced in the job, the lower the job satisfaction of employees

Women are more motivated than men

Nondirectional hypotheses :

 

There is a relationship between age and job satisfaction

Terdapat perbedaan sikap terhadap profesi guru antara mahasiswa yang berasal dari pedesaan dengan mahasiswa yang berasal dari perkotaan

Null hypotheses (H 0 ): … set up to be rejected in order to support an alternate hyphotesis.

H :

0

A

B

or

H :

0

A

B

0

Alternate hyphotesis : … statement expressing a relationship between two variables, or, indicating differences between groups

H :

A

A

B

or H :

A

A

B