Sie sind auf Seite 1von 45

Watershed:

Definition:

Watershed can be defined as a


unit of area covers all the land
which contributes runoff to a
common point or outlet and
surrounded by a ridge line.
Deterioration of watershed takes place
due to faulty and bad management
through the activity of man and his
animals.

Causes of watershed
These activities are:
Deterioration:

Faulty agriculture, forestry and pasture

(Grass land) management leading to


degradation of land.
Unscientific mining and quarrying.
Faulty road alignment and construction.
Industrialization
Forest Fires
Apathy (less interest) of the people.

Results of watershed
Deterioration:
Less production from agriculture,

forests, grass lands etc.


Erosion increases and decreases
biomass production
Rapid siltation of reservoirs, lakes
and river beds.
Less storage of water and lowering of
water table.
Poverty as a result of less food
production.

WATERSHED
DEVELOPMENT
Possible range of treatment
measures
Contour bunding
Contour trenching
Contour stone walls
Bench terraces
Land levelling
Summer ploughing

Agro forestry with suitable

species
Vegetative barriers
Check dams (Temporary and
Permanent)
Retaining walls
Farm ponds and Percolation
ponds
Renovation of existing water
bodies and inlet channels

COMPONENTS OF

Human Resource Development (Community


WATERSHED
Development)
DEVELOPMENT:
Soil and Land Management
Water Management
Crop Management
Afforestation
Pasture/Fodder Development
Livestock Management
Rural Energy Management
Farm and non-farm value addition activities
All these components are interdependent and
interactive.

DEVELOPED WATERSHED

Methods for hill slopes


CONTOUR TRENCHES AND

STONE WALLS
BENCH TERRACING

CONTOUR TRENCHES
AND STONE WALLS

Suitable erosion

control in hills
Adopted for hill slopes
>20%
Continuous or
interrupted

BENCH TERRACING

It helps to bring sloping land

into different level strips to


enable cultivation.
It consists of construction of
step like fields along contours
by half cutting and half filling.
Original slope is converted
into level fields. The vertical
and horizontal intervals are
decided based land slope.

Methods for agricultural


Check dam
land
Percolation pond
Micro catchments
Contour bund
Broad beds and furrows
Gully plugs
Tree plantation
Summer ploughing
Agro forestry
Vegetative barriers
Farm ponds

Check dam

Check Dam

A low weir normally constructed across

the gullies
Constructed on small streams and long
gullies formed by erosive activity of
flood water
It cuts the velocity and reduces erosive
activity
The stored water improves soil moisture
of the adjoining area and allows
percolation to recharge the aquifers
Height depends on the bank height,
varies from a 1 m to 3 m and length
varies from less than 3m to 10m

Percolation pond

To improve the ground water

recharge.
Shallow depression created at
lower portions in a natural or
diverted stream course
Located in soils of permeable
nature
Adaptable where 20-30 ground
water wells for irrigation exist
with in the zone of influence
about 800 X 900 m

Micro catchments

To conserve insitu moisture

and reduce soil loss


Circular basin of one meter
dia for level lands depending
upon infiltration and rainfall
Ditches of size 5m x 5m with
trees planted centre
Saucer basins / semi circular
bunds with 2m diameter to a
height of 15-20cm across the
slope

Broad beds and furrows

To control erosion and to

conserve soil moisture in the


soil during rainy days
The broad bed and furrow
system is laid within the field
boundaries.
Conserves soil moisture in dry
land.
Controls soil erosion.
Acts as a drainage channel
during heavy rainy days.

Contour bund

To intercept the runoff

flowing down the slope by an


embankment.
It helps to control runoff
velocity.
It can be adopted in light and
medium textured soils.
It can be laid up to 6% slopes.
It helps to retain moisture in
the field.

Gully plugs

Gully plug is one of the simple

method of soil and water


conservation. It plays an important
role in soil and water conservation.
Gullies are formed due to erosion of
top soil by the flow of rain water. In
course of time, a gully assumes a big
shape and erosion goes on increasing.
To prevent erosion, barriers or plugs of
different types of material are put
across the gully, at certain intervals.

Tree plantation

Instead of uneconomical

agriculture, farmers can grow


grass in this hilly area and can
use that as a fodder for cattle.
Farmers can go for dairy
development if good quantity and
quality of grass is available.

For

soil
and
water
conservation this activity will
help. Plantation on common
land will satisfy basic need of
fuel wood.
Cheapest method for soil and
water conservation

Summer ploughing

Main objective of field

preparation is to control weeds


Facilitate easy sowing and to
establish good seed soil contact
For easy absorption of moisture
To provide sufficient aeration
To improve water holding
capacity

Agro forestry
Agroforestry is an integrated

approach of using the interactive


benefits from combining trees and
shrubs with crops and/or livestock.
It combines agricultural and
forestry technologies to create more
diverse, productive, profitable,
healthy and sustainable land-use
systems.

Vegetative barriers

Vegetative barriers are

also an effective interterrace land treatment in


place of earthen barriers.

Farm ponds

Roof top rainwater


harvesting
To recharge the wells (open
and tube wells) particularly
abandoned wells by a runoff
collection system.
Direct on-use of collected
water if storage facility is
available.


To directly
RECHARGE
TUBE
feedWELL
depleted
aquifers to fresh water from
ground surface so that the
recharge is fast without any
evaporation loss
Depth of recharge tube well
depends
on
the
present
depth of bore wells in the
area