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ENGLISH

MODALS
MEETING 3

DEPNI LELIANI SITUMORANG


STIKES WIDYA NUSANTARA
PALU

ENGLISH MODAL
The modal auxiliaries in English are: can,
could, had better, may might, must,
ought to, shall, should, will, would.
Modal auxiliaries generally express a
speakers attitudes, or moods. For
example, modal can express that a
speaker feels something is necessary,
advisable, permissible, possible, or
probable, and in addition, they can convey
the strength of these attitudes.

Modals do not take a final s,


even the subject is he, she, it

He cans do it (incorrect)
He can do it (correct)
Rini may buys the book (incorrect)
Rini may buy the book (correct)
Joko will cleans the floor (incorrect)
Joko will clean the floor (correct)

Modals are followed immediately


by the simple form of verb

He can to do it (incorrect)
He can do it (correct)
I will to go (incorrect)
I will go (correct)
They must to study (incorrect)
They must go (correct)
The only exception is ought, which is followed
by an infinitive (to + the simple form of a
verb)
She ought to go to the meeting

Permintaan sopan dengan I


sebagai subject
MAY I
COULD I

(a)May I (please) borrow


your pen?
(b)Could I borrow your pen
(please)

May I and could I are


used to request
permission. They are
equally polite.
Note: in a polite
request, could has a
present or future
meaning, not a past
meaning.

CAN I

(c) Can I borrow your pen?

Can I is used informally


to request permission,
especially if the speaker
is talking to someone
s/he knows fairly well.
Can I is usually not
considered as polite as
may I or could I.

TYPICAL RESPONSES: certainly, yes,

Often the response to a

Permintaan sopan dengan


you sebagai subject
WOULD
YOU
WILL YOU

(a)Would you pass the


salt (please)
(b) Will you (please) pass
the salt?

The meaning of would


you and will you in a
polite request is the
same. Would you is
more common and is
often considered more
polite. The degree of
politeness, however,
is often determined by
the speakers tone of
voice.

COULD
YOU

(c) Could you pass the salt?

Basically, could you and


would you have the
same meaning. Could
you and would you are
equally polite.

CAN YOU

(d) Can you pass the salt)

Can you is often used


informally. It usually

Permintaan sopan dengan


would you mind
Asking permittion:
(a) Would you mind if I closed
the window

Notice that would you mind


if___ is followed by the simple
past.
The meaning of the sentence
is is it all right if I close the
window? Will it cause you any
trouble or discomfort if I close
the window?

Typical response: no, not at all, no, of course not, no, that would be
fine.
Asking someone else to do
something:
(b) Would you mind closing the
window?

Notice that would you mind ____


is followed by ing (gerund)
The meaning of the sentence is I
dont want to cause you any
trouble, but would you please
close the window? Would that
cause you any incovenience?

Typical response: no, Id be happy to., not at all. Id be glad to.

Mengekspresikan kebutuhan: must,


have to, have got to
Must and have to both
express necessity

(a)All applicants must take an


entrance test
(b)All applicants have to take
an entrance exam

In everyday statements of
necessity, have to is used more
commonly than must. Must is
usually stronger than have to and
can indicate urgency or stress
importance

(a) I am looking for Sue. I have to


talk to her about our lunch
tomorrow.
(b)Where is Sue? I must talk to
her right away. I have an
urgent message for her.

Have got to also expresses the


idea of necessity. Have got to is
informal and is used primarily in
spoken English. Have to is used in
both formal and informal English

(c) I have got to go now. I have a


class in ten.
(d) I have to go now. I have a
class in ten.

Usual pronunciation of got to is


(e) I have got to go/ Ive gotta go/
gotta. Sometimes have is
I gotta go
dropped in speech. I gotta do it

Tidak adanya keharusan dan larangan:


have to and must dalam bentuk negatif
LACK OF NECESSITY:
(a)Tomorrow is a holiday. We
dont have to go to class.
(b)I can hear you. you dont
have to shout.

Do not have to=lack of


necessity

PROHIBITION:
(a) You must not look in the
closet. Your birthday present is
hidden there.
(b)You must not tell anyone my
secret. Do you promise?

Must not=prohibition (DO NOT


DO THIS)

Anjuran: should, ought to, had


better
(a)You should study harder
(b)Drivers should obey the
speed limit
(c)You shouldnt leave your
keys in the car

Should expresses advisability

(a) You ought to study harder


(b)Drivers ought to obey the
speed limit

Ought to and should have the


same meaning. Ought to is
sometimes pronounced otta in
informal speaking.

(a) You had better see the doctor


(b)We had better listen to the
news
(c) You had better not come late

In a meaning, had better is close


to should/ought to , but had
better is stronger. Often had
better implies a warning or a
threat of possible bad
consequence.