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Crankcase

Crankcase

provides mounting surface for

cylinders and external accessories


contains the engines internal parts
provides a tight enclosure for
lubricating oil as well as means of
attachment to an airframe

Crankcase

most aircraft crank


cases are made of cast
aluminum alloys.
made by sand casting

Types

Opposed Engine
Radial Engine

Opposed Engine Crankcase

consists of two halves of


cast aluminum alloy

Radial Engine Crankcase

divided into distinct sections


can be as few as three or as
many as seven
typically has four main
sections

Nose Section

mounted at the front and bolted


directly at the power section
supports the propeller sections
mounting points for magnetos
and other engine accessories

Power Section

the reciprocating moton of


the pistons is converted to
rotary motion of the crankshaft
supports crankshaft
bearings

Supercharger Section

houses the supercharger


and its related components
attachments of induction
pipes and manifold
pressure lines

Accessory Section

mounting pads for fuel


pump, oil, tachometer
generators etc

Piston

Piston

a cylindrical plunger that

moves up and down, back


and forth within a cylinder

Piston

draw fuel and air into a cylinder


compress the gases
purge burned exhaust gases
transmit the force to the
crankshaft

Piston

cast aluminum alloy


may exceed 4000 F
high as 500 psi or up

Piston Head

the top surface


directly exposed to the heat
of combustion

Ring Grooves

cut into a pistons outside


surface
holds a set of piston rings
as many as six ring grooves

Ring Land

portion between the ring


grooves

Piston pin boss

an enlarge area inside the


piston
provides additional bearing
area for a piston pin

Piston skirt

piston base is extended to


form the piston skirt
helps align a piston n a
cylinder

Cam-Ground Piston

the diameter of the piston


parallel to the piston boss is
slightly less than the
diameter perpendicular to
the piston.

Piston Rings

prevent leakage of gas


pressure
reduce oil seepage into the
combustion chamber
transfer heat from the piston to
the cylinder walls.

Compression Rings

prevent gas from escaping


past the piston
typically use two or three
compression rings

Oil Rings

controls the amount of oil


Oil control rings
Oil scraper rings

Piston Pin

Stationary

held tightly in place by a


setscrew that prevents
movement.

Semi-floating

allows little movement

Full-floating

free to rotate in both the


connecting rod and the
piston

Valves

Valves

regulates the flow of gases into


and out of the cylinder
each cylinder has at least one
intake valve and one exhaust valve
intake valves operate at lower
temperatures

Valves

metallic sodium melts and


transfer heat to the valve
stem where the heat is
conducted away by the
cylinder head

Valve Face

creates a seal at the intake


and exhaust ports
Valve Seat

provides a uniform sealing


surface

Valve Guide

provides support to the


valve stem
Valve Springs

holds the valve face firmly


agints the valve seat

Valve Spring Retainer

holds the valve springs in


place

Valve Operating Mechanism

Camshaft

transform the circular motion


of the crankshaft to the linear
motion needed to actuate a
valve
driven at one-half the
crankshafts rotational speed

Valve lifter or tappet

transmit the force of the


cam to the push rod
Push Rod

transmit the motion of the


valve lifter

Rocker Arm

a pivoted arm mounted on


the bearing of the cylinder
head to open and close the
valves