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EXPLORATION

GEOPHYSICS

Seismic Stratigraphic
Interpretation

Program
Studi
Physiography of
IndonesiaTeknik Geologi
Fakultas Teknologi Kebumian
dan Energi
Universitas Trisakti

Dr. Ir. Eko


Widianto, MT
Semester Ganjil_2015
- 2016

LECTURE MATERIALS
1

INTRODUCTION: Definition, Level Petroleum Investigation, Role of

3
4
5
6
7
8

10

11

Geophysical Methods

Fundamental of Seismic Method


Seismic Acquisition
Seismic Processing
Seismic Structural Interpretation
Seismic Stratigraphic Interpretation
Seismic Interpretation Exercise (2X)
Review of Gravity Method
Paradigm Shift in Gravity Data
Utilization
Gravity data analysis for Oil and Gas
Exploration
Gravity Data analysis for Reservoir
Monitoring
2

Summary

Sequence stratigraphy:
an integrated
framework
- for petroleum systems analysis and
- predictive models for prospect
generation
Sequences are controlled by a complex
interaction
of tectonism, eustasy, sediment
supply and climate
Several approaches exist, differing
mainly in terms of
principal bounding surfaces; one or
another may be

Stratigraphic Analysis

Controls on Stratigraphic Architecture

Shoreline Movements

Alternative Packages

Type-1 Exxonian Sequence

Highstand

Transgressive
F

Eustasy
R

Lowstand Wedge
Lowstand Fan

Systems Tracts

Scale of Stratigraphic Correlation


Using Outcrops or
Cores

High

60

Very
Local

40

Visually correlate
laminae and beds
Units are centimeters
thick

20

Resolution

Pattern correlation of
log markers
Units are meters thick

Using Seismic Data

Well A

Well B

Well C
12
9
6
3
0
meters

Areal Extent

Using Well Logs

Seismic correlation of
bedsets and larger
units
Units are tens to
hundreds of meters
thick
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ExxonMobil

cm

meters
300
200
100

Low
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Basinwide

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The STRENGTHS of Seismic Data


Good areal coverage
Able to image major depositional units
Able to identify potential source,
reservoir, and seal units
Provides a stratigraphic framework
within which other data can be
understood
Vail et al., 1977a
Well data
Basin fill history
HC systems

AAPG1977 reprinted with permission of the AAPG


whose permission is required for further use.

Courtesy of ExxonMobil

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The WEAKNESSES of Seismic Data


Limited vertical and lateral resolution:
cant resolve small features
Stratigraphic interpretation is limited by
the quality of the seismic data/imaging
Seismic responses are non-unique e.g.,
low amplitude could be a massive sand or a
thick shale
In new areas, we often have to jump
correlate from adjacent outcrops or basins
Post-depositional erosion and/or
structuring can hamper stratigraphic
correlations and paleo-depositional
reconstructions
Typically we cant see hydrocarbons

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Two Methods for Correlating


There are two basic ways to correlate
stratigraphy:
By rock type i.e.,

Lithostratigraphy

By age-equivalence i.e.,
Chronostratigraphy

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Lithostratigraphy
Units are defined based on lithology
Rock units vary in space and time
Boundaries are subjective, and not
physical since lateral facies changes are
gradational
A Sand
B Sand
B Sand

X Member

X Nonmarine Member

non-marine

A Sand

Z Shale

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Z Shale

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Chronostratigraphy
Units defined based on time-equivalent
stratal surfaces, natural stratigraphic
subdivisions
Chronozones vary in space but not time
Correspond to physical boundaries, which
can generate reflections
Time Unit 1
Unit 3
Unit 2

Time Unit 2
Time Unit 3

Unit 1

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Question ???
What Do We Observe on Seismic Sections?
Lithostratigraphic Units, or
Chronostratigraphic Units?

A Thought Experiment:
What geometry would we observe for a prograding
system

Unit 3

B Sand

Unit 2

X Nonmarine Member
A Sand

Unit 1
Z Shale

Lithostratigraphic?
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Chronostratigraphic?
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Answer !!!

In a prograding depositional system,


reflections parallel stratal surfaces and
therefore have time or chronostratigraphic
significance.

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Seismic Example of Angular


Discordance

There is angular discordance


between reflections at the yellow
line
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Terminations: Base of a Sequence

Older
Beds

Older
Beds

Onlap

Downlap

A base-discordant relationship
in which younger strata
terminate progressively against
a surface of greater inclination

A base-discordant relationship
in which younger inclined strata
terminate progressively against
a surface of lower inclination

NOTE: These definitions are based on observed geometric relationships, not


on inferred depositional processes
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Terminations: Top of a Sequence


Younger
Beds

Younger
Beds

Erosion

Toplap

A top-discordant relationship in
which strata terminate along an
unconformity surface due to
post-depositional erosion

A top-discordant relationship in
which strata terminate against a
surface mainly as a result of
non-deposition (bypass)

NOTE: These definitions are based on observed geometric relationships


AND some inference about depositional processes
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Seismic Sequence
Mitchum et al., 1977a

Toplap
Of
On

lap

Overlying
Unconformity

ap

Truncation

Underlying

Onlap
Downlap

Unconformity

Internal
Convergence

AAPG1977reprinted with permission of the AAPG whose permission is required for further use.

A depositional sequence is a relatively conformable


succession of genetically related strata bounded at its top and
base by unconformities or their correlative conformities.
A seismic sequence is a depositional sequence identified on
a seismic section
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What Is Seismic Facies Analysis?


Input: Seismic Data (2D or 3D)
Seismic Stratigraphic Analysis
Define key stratigraphic intervals
Seismic Sequence Analysis
Determine the rock types within each
interval
Seismic Facies Analysis

Product: Prediction of Rock Types


Sand within reservoir intervals
Shale in overlying seal intervals & source intervals

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Definitions
Seismic Facies Unit
a mappable, three dimensional seismic unit
composed of groups of reflections whose
parameters differ from those of adjacent
facies units.

Seismic Facies Analysis


the description and geologic interpretation
(environmental setting, lithofacies, etc.) of
seismic reflection parameters.
Mitchum et al., 1977a

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Reflection Features Used in Mapping


Feature

Significance

Seismic
Amplitude

Reflection
Geometry

Depositional Processes

Reflection
Continuity

Lateral Stratal Continuity


Depositional Processes

Wavelet
Frequency
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Impedance Contrasts
(significant stratal surfaces)
Bed Spacing / Tuning
Fluid Content

Bed Thickness
Fluid Content

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Seismic Facies Analysis


Seismic Sequence
Analysis
Key Stratigraphic
Units
Are Broken Out

Mitchum et al., 1977b


AAPG1977reprinted with permission of the AAPG
whose permission is required for further use.

Seismic Facies
Analysis
Geometric Relations
are Captured through
ABC Mapping

Other Seismic Features


are Extracted as
Seismic Attributes

Interpretation/Predicti
on

Patterns are used to Interpret


EODs
Lithologies / stacking are
predicted
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Carb.
Slope Shelf
Edge
Reef

Carbonate
Shelf

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Posting Geometric Observation

The ABC Method


Tr = Truncation
Tp = Toplap
C = Concordant

A - B
C

On = Onlap
Dn = Downlap
C = Concordant

p = parallel
m = mounded
ob = oblique progradation
sub = subparallel w = wavy
sig = sigmoid progradation
div = divergent rf = reflection free
sh = shingled

A = Termination Pattern at the Upper Sequence Boundary


B = Termination Pattern at the Lower Sequence Boundary
C = Internal Reflection Pattern
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Internal Reflection Patterns


Stratified

Simple

Unstratified

Progradational

Parallel
Sigmoid
Subparallel Oblique
Divergent Combination
Shingled

Complex

Mounded
Hummocky
Deformed

Chaotic
Reflection
Free

For examples, see AAPG Memoir 26

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Simple Stratified Internal Configurations


Parallel - Even
Stratified

Simple Progradational Complex

Subparallel

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Divergent

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Progradational Internal Configurations


Shingled
Stratified

Simple Progradational Complex

Sigmoid

Oblique

Upbuilding (Aggradation)

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Outbuilding
(Progradation)
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Complex Internal Configurations


Mounded
Stratified

Simple Progradational Complex

Hummocky

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Deformed

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The Classic Method - An Example

C -On
P

T -C
Ob

T -Dn
Ob

C -Dn
P

C -C
P

Line B

Each Line is Subdivided into Seismic Facies Units


where Each Unit Differs from its Neighbors
Here Facies Units are based on Reflection Geometries

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ABC Codes Posted on a Map


Line A

C -C

10

Line B
10
C -On

20

30

T -C
Ob

40
T -Dn

50
C -Dn

Ob

C -C
P

20

10
C -On
P

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20
T -C
Ob

T -C

Div

Line C

30
30
T -Dn
Ob
40

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40

C -Dn
P

50

C -C
P

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Facies Synthesis

Sh
el
f

ar
gi
n

Line A

C -C
P

10

La
st

Line B
10

20
T -C
Ob

C -On
P

T -C
Div

Wedge
Line C
10
C -On
P

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30

20
T -C
Ob

20

40

50

T -Dn
Ob

C -Dn
P

Zone of
30Progradation
30
T -Dn
Ob

40

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40

C -C
P

Sheet
50

C -Dn
P

C -C
P

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Depositional Environments
Line A
10

Line B
10

20

30

40

50

20

Non-Marine

Marginal
Marine

Slope
Basin

30

Line C
10

20

30

40

50

40

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Inferred Lithology - Prediction


Prediction

Facies Model

Crevasse Splay

Sea Level

Channel Fill
Proximal
Distributary
Mouth Bar

Delta Front Sandstone


Delta Front Siltstone
Pro-Delta Shales
Offshore Clay

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Distal
Distributary
Mouth Bar
Delta Front
Prodelta

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Time for Another Exercise


Woodbine: Onshore East Texas

Line 1a

Ramsayer, 1979

OTC1979 reprinted with permission of the OTC


whose permission is required for further use.

Courtesy of ExxonMobil

Line 1

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Line 1
Well
C

Well D

Ramsayer, 1979

OTC1979 reprinted with permission of the OTC


whose permission is required for further use.

Courtesy of ExxonMobil

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ABC-Coded Map

Well C

Well D

Ramsayer, 1979

OTC1979 reprinted with permission of the OTC


whose permission is required for further use.

Courtesy of ExxonMobil

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ABC Synthesis

Well C

Well D

Ramsayer, 1979

OTC1979 reprinted with permission of the OTC


whose permission is required for further use.

Courtesy of ExxonMobil

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Interpreted Depositional
Environments

Ramsayer, 1979

OTC1979 reprinted with permission of the OTC


whose permission is required for further use.

Courtesy of ExxonMobil

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THANK YOU