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HN4003
HUMAN NUTRITION

Fat

Anastasia Z. Kalea, RD, PhD, AFHEA


Lecturer in Nutrition and Dietetics

Digestive nutrients
Macronutrients
Carbohydrates
Proteins

Fat
Micronutrients
Vitamins
Minerals

Essential
Nutrients

nutrients

that can not be produced by the body

Introduction - Fats
Provide:

The most concentrated form of energy in the diet (9 kcals/g)


Essential nutrients (essential fatty acids (EFAs)

UK

intakes: ~ 35% of energy

UK

DRV:

35% of energy

Definition

Actual or potential esters of fatty acids


Insoluble in water / soluble in non polar solvents
(eg: chloroform, ether)

+ Fats in food

Visible fat (50%)

Fat on meat
Butter

Margarine

Vegetable oil

Lard (dripping)

Cream

Invisible/Hidden fat (50%)


Sausages

Chicken skin

Biscuits
and Cakes

Nuts

Pizza

Fast food

+ Functions of fat in the body


1. Energy store
2. Thermal insulator
3. Electrical insulator
4. Steroid hormone precursor
5. Bile acid manufacture
6. Essential fatty acids (EFAs)
7. Carrier of fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K)

+ Types of lipids
Sterols

Triglycerides

Cholesterol
Foods:
Animal

Storage

fat

Foods:

95% of foods

(Cholesterol in meat, dairy)

Plants
(plant stanols and sterols)

Hormones

C
A

Phospholipids
Fat in cell walls
Foods: emulsifiers,
eggs, liver, peanuts

+ Sterols

C
A

Sterols have as their core a fused four ring structure (the A, B, C, and D rings).
Various groups added to the core structure generate other important molecules.

Found in plant and animal foods


Cholesterol is found in animal foods only

Sterols

Triglycerides

Dietary fats are mostly TGs

The 3 fatty acids are a mixture of different types of FA

Each TG is made up of a mixture of FAs

The type of FA gives the fat its properties

+ Fatty acids made up of:


1.

carbon (hydrogen) backbone (CHn)


n = 2 24, most common 14 -20

2.

methyl end (CH3)

3.

carboxyl end (COOH)

Presence of
double bonds

FAs- Nomenclature

+ Formation of TGs

+ Types of fatty acid

Fatty acids differ in number of carbon & hydrogen atoms

when hydrogen atoms are missing, carbon atoms form double


bonds

1.

Saturated fatty acids (SFA) - no double bonds

2.

Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) - 1 double bond (2 missing H


atoms)

3.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) - 2 or more double bonds (four or


more missing H atoms)

+ TGs may have different types of FAs

TGs may have different types of FAs

FA melting points (MP)

Longer the FA chain - Higher melting point (MP)

More saturated - Higher MP

Hydrogenation:

Straightens unsaturated FAs allows tighter packing &


raises MP

+ FA melting points

+ Saturated fatty acids


An example:

STERIC acid

C18:0 (18 carbon atoms, no double bonds)

Most common saturated FA; found in all plant and animal fats.

Fatty Acids
Length of carbon chain

Stearic acid 18-carbon, saturated

Simplified structure
Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

+ SFAs
Palmitic

hard fats such as butter, lard, suet, cocoa butter

Myristic

acid

butter and coconut oil

Butyric

acid & stearic acid

acid

small amounts in butter and milk contributes to their taste,


released when fats become rancid

Common SFAs

+ SFA and health


High

intake of SFAs have been associated with:

Raised blood cholesterol level (LDL), a risk factors for CVD

The development of insulin resistance & dyslipidaemia (abnormal blood fat


levels) as part of the Metabolic Syndrome (a cluster of risk factors for
CVD) that is also associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes

Guidelines recommended reducing overall dietary fat consumption to 35%


of total energy intake, and specifically, saturated fat to 10% of total energy
intake

+ BMJ, Open Heart, 2015

However, the dietary advice on fat consumption issued to millions


of US and UK citizens, to cut CVD incidence, lacked any solid trial
evidence to back it up, and should not have been introduced

Evidence from randomised controlled trials did not support the


introduction of dietary fat guidelines in 1977 and 1983: a
systematic review and meta-analysis
http://openheart.bmj.com/content/2/1/e000196/suppl/DC1

Zoe Harcombe , author, talks about her article:


Please listen to:
https://soundcloud.com/bmjpodcasts/why-we-were-wrong-about-dietary-fatguidelines

Lipid content of selected foods

+ Unsaturated FAs

The configuration for double bond is almost always cis


The bent structure is common for unsaturated Fas

Liquid at room temperature


Most commonly, from vegetable origin
Their melting point (MP):
increases with increasing chain length
decreases with degree of unsaturation

When a fatty acid is unsaturated and has a short chain length,


it increases the fluidity

+ Mono unsaturated FAs: (MUFA)


An example:

OLEIC acid C18:1n-9 (18 carbon atoms, 1 double bonds)


Found in olive oil; may have health benefits
(Mediterranean diet)

+ Mono unsaturated FAs: (MUFA)

H H H H H H H H

H H H H H H H O

H-C--C--C--C--C--C--C--C--C=C--C--C--C--C--C--C--C--C-OH

H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H

omega end

alpha end
One double bond

PUFA
An example:

LINOLEIC acid

C18:2 (n-6)

(18 carbon atoms, 2 double bonds)


Most common PUFA found in corn, peanut,
oils

soybean & many plant

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid


Structure
H H H H H

H H H H H HH O

H-C--C--C--C--C--C=C--C--C=C--C--C--C--C--C--C--C--C-OH

H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H

omega end

alpha end
> 1 double bonds

What do we mean when we say


that a food is a rich source of a
certain type of fat?

Fatty acids types in selected foods

Cis / Trans

Cis:

Both Hydrogens on the same side of double bond


Molecule has a kink
Can not be densely packed
Unsaturated Cis FAs found in oils

Trans:

Hydrogens on different sides of double bond


No kink
Occurs naturally, in small amounts, due to fermentation
Can be densely packed (hence, solid vegetable fat)

+ Cis / Trans

Most unsaturated fatty acids have their double bonds


in the cis form

Hydrogenation changes cis to trans

+ Hydrogenation:

Converts unsaturated oils to


solid vegetable fat by
converting cis bonds to
trans

Can be packed together


more closely

Creates vegetable fats

+
Trans fatty acid sources

Consistent finding:
Trans-FAs form associated with raised lipids & the
development of CVD
http://www.sacn.gov.uk/pdfs/sacn_trans_fatty_acids_report.pdf

+ Essential Fatty Acids

Position of double bond counted from the methyl-end


eg: n-6: 1st double bond is on 6th carbon

Animals can not insert double bonds close to the methyl-end

Fatty acids with double bonds at n-3 & n-6 are the essential fatty
acids (EFAs)

Fas that humans and other animals must ingest because the
body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them.

Two fatty acids are known to be essential for humans: alpha-linolenic


acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid).
Conditionally essential: they can become essential under some
developmental

or

disease

conditions;

examples

include

docosahexaenoic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and gamma-linolenic


acid (an omega-6 fatty acid).

+ Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs)


Omega-3

Omega 6

-Linolenic acid

DHA
(docosahexanoic
acid)

EPA
(eicosapentaenoic
acid)

Linolenic acid

Arachidonic Acid

+ n-6 / omega 6 (-6)

Found in plant oils eg: Linoleic acid C18:2 (n-6)


Requirement: 1 -2% of energy (2 -4 g/day)

Arachidonic acid (C20:4) is the main FA in cell


membranes

Produces eicosanoids in response to trauma


these cause inflammation & blood clotting around
trauma site & prevent blood clots in arterial walls

+ Eicosanoids
Hormone-like substances; act on the tissues where they are
produced
1) Prostaglandin (PGE2) - pro inflammatory
(acts on WBC)
2) Thromboxane (TXA2) - pro thrombotic
(acts on platlets)
3) Prostacyclin (PGI2) - anti thrombotic
(acts on blood vessel walls)

+ n-3 - omega 3 (-3)


Found in plant oils and oily fish & fish oils
eg: -Linolenic acid C18:3 (n-3)

Requirement: 0.5 of energy (1 g/day)


Will create inactive EICOSANOIDS

+ n-3 - omega 3 (-3)


Parent FA:

-Linolenic acid (C18:3, n-3)

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C20:5, n-3)


1) Prostaglandin

(PGE3)

Inactive

2) Thromboxane

(TXA3)

Inactive

3) Prostacyclin

(PGI3)

Active

+ EPA replaces aracidonic acid in cell membranes


inactive

PGE2 & TXA2

Reduced inflammation and blood clotting

Cod liver oil & Evening Primrose Oil


Rich in EPA
Anti inflammatory

+ Blubber
Inuit (Eskimos) eat whale blubber
(rich in EPA)

Bleeding time
Inuit

10 minutes

Non Inuit

3 minutes

Health-related Effects

Arachidonic acid (Omega-6 )

Increases blood clotting

Increases inflammatory responses

DHA, EPA (Omega-3)

Decrease blood clotting

Reduce heart attack

Decrease inflammation

Excess may cause hemorrhagic stroke

Other possible uses: Lower triglycerides, rheumatoid arthritis,


behavioral disorders

+
Aspirin (& other COX inhibitors) stop AA
producing PGE2 &TXA2

Aspirin & EPA


* reduce inflammation & blood clotting
* CVD patients encouraged to eat oily fish
& take aspirin

+ DHA Decosahexanoic acid


Needed

C22:6 (n-3 )

for brain function & visual response:

Brain-

phospholipids (20% of total)


phospholipids (50% of total)

Adults

can make EPA & DHA from -Linolenic acid

Pre-term & infants need preformated DHA

DHA

added to formula milk

EPA &

eye - retinal

DHA found in fish oils

+ Overview of lipoprotein metabolism


CM carry:
TG
Chol
Vitamins

Robert A. Hegele Nature Reviews Genetics 10, 109-121 (February 2009)

Fat intakes in UK diet (NDNS 2011)


Dietary Reference
Value

Average intake in
adults

Total fat

35% of food energy


(i.e. excluding alcohol)

35% in men
34.4% in women

Saturated fatty acids

11% of food energy

12.8% in men
12.6% in women

Trans fatty acids

Below 2% of food energy 0.7% in men and women

Total Cis polyunsaturates 6.5% of food energy

6.1% in men
6.2% in women

Cis n-3 polyunsaturates

Minimum intake 0.2% of


food energy

1% in men
1.1% in women

Cis n-6 polyunsaturates

Minimum intake 1% of
food energy;

5.1% in men and women

Monounsaturates

13% of food energy

12.8% in men
12.3% in women

+ Sources of Fat in the UK


Type
of fat
Source
diet
Total fat

Meat and meat products (24%)


Cereals and cereal products (incl. cakes and biscuits)
(19%)
Milk and milk products (13%)
Fat spreads (10%)
Potatoes and savoury snacks (9%)
Eggs and fish (9%)

Saturated fatty acids

Meat & meat products (25%)


Milk & milk product (22%)
Cereal products (19%)
Fat spreads (10%)
Fried potatoes/savoury snacks (4%)
Eggs & egg dishes (4%)

Monounsaturated fatty
acids

Meat & meat products (27%)


Cereal products (17%)
Potatoes cooked in oil & savoury snacks (12%)
Fat & spreads (11%)
Milk & milk products (10%)

+ Sources of Fat in the UK diet


n-3 (omega-3) fatty
acids

Potatoes cooked in oil and savoury snacks (17%)


Meat & meat products (17%)
Cereal products (17%)
Vegetables (excluding potatoes) (11%)
Fish & fish dishes (oily fish only) (10%)

n-6 (omega-6) fatty


acids

Cereal products (20%)


Meat & meat products (18%)
Fat spreads (14%)
Potatoes cooked in oil and savoury snacks (13%)
Vegetables (excluding potatoes) (9%)

Trans fatty acids

Other foods (29%)


Meat & meat products (25%)**
Milk and milk products (22%)**
Cereal products (19%)*
Fat spreads (10%)*

+ Some fats lower LDL, some others increase


it