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Leadership and Leadership Styles

Leadership - what is it?


influencing people so that they will strive
willingly towards the achievement of
group goals 1

How important is a leader?


In most cases, people will perform at
about 60% of their potential with no
leadership at all
Thus, an additional 40% can be realized if
effective leadership is available

capability
utilization

Contributionduetoleadership
abilityofmanager

40%

Defaultcontributiondueto
needforajob,peerpressure,etc.

60%

The 2 dimensions of management


Economic or productivity-based

1.

concern for production

Employee condition and morale

2.

concern for people

The 2 dimensions of management


These can also be thought of as:
1. Initiating structure (get it done)
2. Consideration (human condition)

Styles of leadership
X

Consideration

X
Initiatingstructure

Styles of leadership
9

Benevolent
Leader
(Y)

Team
Leader
(Z)

concernfor
people

Laissezfaire
Leader
(L)

Autocratic
Leader
(X)

concernforproduction

Theory L: Laissez-faire leader


Uninvolved - leave them alone
Sees main role as passer of information
Lets others make decisions
Basically abdicates responsibility for team
or unit

Theory X: Autocratic leader


Lacks flexibility
Controlling and demanding
carrot and stick approach
Focused solely on productivity

Theory Y: Benevolent leader


Very people oriented; encouraging
Organizes around people
Can be paternalistic
country club atmosphere: noncompetitive

Theory Z: Team leader


Balances production and people issues
Builds a working team of employees
Team approach: involves subordinates
Organization is a vehicle for carrying out
plans

Results of leadership styles


Theory L: missing management

1.

Very low productivity

Theory X: my way or the highway

2.

Job stress; low satisfaction; unions form

Theory Y: country club

3.

Low achievement; good people leave

Theory Z: good manager

4.

High productivity, cooperation, low turnover,


employee commitment

Origins of leadership
Are leaders born or made?

BOTH. Evidence that both inherent


personality and environment are factors

What

kind of leader would you be?

Leader traits
physical stature, appearance, social
class, emotional stability, fluency of
speech, and sociability.
Later, traits consistently associated with
leadership (the process of leading, not the
person) were more successful.

The seven traits :


1.Drive
2.Desire to Lead
3.Honesty and Integrity
4.Self-Confidence
5.Intelligence
6.Job-relevant Knowledge
7.Extraversion

LEADERSHIP THEORIES:

Blake and Moutons Managerial Grid

Impoverished Management (1, 1)


Task management (9, 1)
Middle-of-the-Road (5, 5)
Country Club (1, 9)
Team Management (9, 9)

Houses Path Goal TheoryThe theory is based on the premise that an


employees perception of expectancies
between his effort and performance is greatly
affected by a leaders behavior.
The leaders help group members in attaining
rewards by clarifying the paths to goals and
removing obstacles to performance.
They do so by providing the information,
support, and other resources which are
required by employees to complete the task.

Transformational Leadership Theory

Transformational leadership may be found


at all levels of the organization: teams,
departments, divisions, and organization
as a whole. Such leaders are visionary,
inspiring, daring, risk-takers, and
thoughtful thinkers.

Transformational Leadership Theory

Contingency Theories of
Leadership
The Fiedler Model
The model was based on the premise that a
certain leadership style would be most
effective in different types of situations. The
keys were to (1) define those leadership
styles and the different types of situations,
and then (2) identify the appropriate
combinations of style and situations.

The Fiedler Model


Fiedler proposed that a key factor in
leadership success was an individuals
basic leadership style, either task oriented
or relationship oriented.
To measure a leaders style, Fiedler
developed the least-preferred coworker
(LPC) questionnaire.

The Fiedler Model


Situational factors in leader effectiveness.
Leadermember relations.
Task structure.
Position power.

COMMUNICATION
Communication needs to be effective in
business.
Business Communication is goal oriented.
The rules, regulations and policies of a
company have to be communicated to
people within and outside the
organization.

Business Communication can be of


two types:

Oral Communication - An oral communication


can be formal or informal. Generally business
communication is a formal means of
communication, like : meetings, interviews,
group discussion, speeches etc. An example of
Informal business communication would be Grapevine.
Written Communication - Written means of
business communication includes - agenda,
reports, manuals etc.

Communication is a process

Communication Barriers
Poor retention
Complexity in Organizational Structure
Emotions
Distraction/Noise
Time Pressures
Inattention
Information Overload
Perceptual and Language Differences

Overcoming Communication
Barriers

Use of Simple Language


Reduction and elimination of noise levels
Active Listening
Emotional State
Simple Organizational Structure
Eliminating differences in perception
Avoid Information Overload
Give Constructive Feedback

Seven Cs of Effective
Communication
Completeness
Conciseness
Consideration
Clarity
Concreteness
Courtesy
Correctness