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# PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

## GEM 805 OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES

Transportation Problem
- Stepping Stone Method -

## Stepping Stone Method

>>> This is a one of the methods used to determine
optimality of an initial basic feasible solution (i.e.
Northwest Corner Rule, Least Cost or Vogels
Approximation)
>>> The method is derived from the analogy of crossing a
pond using stepping stones. This means that the entire
transportation table is assumed to be a pond and the
occupied cells are the stones needed to make certain
movements within the pond.

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
Transportation Table
DESTINATIONS

1
A

SOURCES

C
DEMAND

SUPPLY

10

30

50

10

10

40

20

30

50

50

40

60

50
150

Z = 4x10+6x30+6x50+7x10+5x10+8x40 = 960

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
1. Starting at an unused/empty cell, trace a closed path or
loop back to the original cell via cells that are currently
being used and/or occupied.
Note: A closed path or loop is a sequence of cells in the
transportation table such that the first cell is
unused/empty
and
all
the
other
cells
are
used/occupied with the following conditions:
a. Each pair of consecutive used/occupied cells lies in
either the same row or column
b. No three consecutive used/occupied cells lie in the
same row or column
c. The first and last cells of a sequence lies in the same
row or column
d. No cell appears more than once in a sequence (i.e. no
duplication)
e. Only horizontal and vertical moves allowed and can
only change directions at used/occupied cells

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
Example:

At Cell
A3,

A3->B3->B4->C4->C1->A1>A3
DESTINATIONS

1
4

SUPPLY

A
SOURCES

40

10

30

60

50

10

50

DEMAND

10
20

30

50

40
50

150

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
Example: At Cell A4,

A4->C4->C1->A1>A4
DESTINATIONS

1
4

SUPPLY

40

10

30

SOURCES

60

50

10

50

DEMAND

10
20

30

50

40
50

150

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
Example: At Cell B1, B1->B4->C4->C1>B1
DESTINATIONS

1
A
SOURCES

C
DEMAND

SUPPLY

10

30

50

10

10

40

20

30

50

50

40

60

50
150

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
Example: At Cell
B2,

B2->B4->C4->C1->A1->A2>B2
DESTINATIONS

1
4

SUPPLY

40

10

30

SOURCES

60

50

10

50

DEMAND

10
20

30

50

40
50

150

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
Example:

## At Cell C2, C2->C1->A1->A2>C2

DESTINATIONS

1
4

SUPPLY

40

10

30

SOURCES

60

50

10

50

DEMAND

10
20

30

50

40
50

150

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
Example:

At Cell
C3,

C3->B3->B4->C4>C3
DESTINATIONS

1
4

SUPPLY

40

10

30

SOURCES

60

50

10

50

DEMAND

10
20

30

50

40
50

150

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
2. For every traced path or loop, begin with a plus (+) sign
at the starting unused cell and alternately place a minus
(-) and plus (+) sign at each used cell
Example: At Cell A3, A3->B3->B4->C4->C1>A1->A3
DESTINATIONS

DEMAND

10

30

50

10

SUPPLY

10

40

20

30

50

50

SOURCES

40

60

50
150

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
3. Calculate an Improvement Index by first adding the
unit-cost figures found in each cell containing a plus sign
and subtracting the unit costs in each square containing a
minus sign.
Example:
At Cell A3, A3->B3->B4->C4->C1->A1->A3
DESTINATIONS

DEMAND

-4
4

8
8

10

30

6
-

50

7
+
7

10

5
+
5

SUPPLY

10

20

30

IA3 =

50

-8
8

40
50

=2

SOURCES

40

60

50
150

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
Iteration #1 - Computing for the Improvement Index:
At A3, A3->B3->B4->C4->C1->A1; IA3 = +8-6+7-8+5-4 =
2
At A4, A4->C4->C1->A1;
IA4 = +8-8+5-4 = 1
At B1, B1->B4->C4->C1;

IB1 = +6-7-8-5 = 2

## At B2, B2->B4->C4->C1->A1->A2; IB2 = +8-7+8-5+4-6 =

2
At C2, Loop C2->C1->A1->A2;
IC2 = +7-5+4-6 = 0
4.
If allC3->B3->B4->C4;
indices calculated are greater
or equal=to
At C3,
IC3 =than
+6-6+7-8
-1zero,
then, an optimal solution had been reached. If not, select
the path/loop that has the most negative value and use
this to further improve the solution.
Note: Should there be two or more most negative
values, select arbitrarily.

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
Example: At Cell C3, C3->B3>B4->C4

IC3 = +6-6+7-8 =
-1
DESTINATIONS

1
4

SUPPLY

40

10

30

SOURCES

50

10

DEMAND

10
20

30

50

40
50

60

50

150

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
To further improve the current solution, select the smallest
number found in the path/loop C3->B3->B4->C4 containing
minus(-) signs. This number is added to all cells on the closed
path/loop with plus(+) signs and subtracted from all cells on the
path assigned with minus(-) signs.
DESTINATIONS

1
4

SUPPLY

40

10

30

SOURCES

+
10 +

50 50
40

40
40
40

DEMAND

10
20

30

40
50

10
40

50

60

50

150

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
5. Then, we have a new basic feasible solution
DESTINATIONS

1
A
SOURCES

C
DEMAND

SUPPLY

10

30

10

50

10

40

20

30

50

50

40

60

50
150

## and repeat steps 1 though 4 to calculate an Improvement

Index for all unused squares in order to test whether an
optimal solution has been reached.

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
Iteration #2 - Computing for the Improvement Index:
At A3, A3->C3->C1->A1;
IA3 = +8-6+5-4 = 3
At A4, A4->B4->B3->C3->C1->A1; IA4 = +8-7+6-6+5-4 =
2
At B1, B1->B3->C3->C1;
IB1 = +6-6+6-5 = 1
At B2, B2->B3->C3->C1->A1->A2; IB2 = +8-6+6-5+4-6 =
1
At C2, C2->C1->A1->A2;
IC2 = +7-5+4-6 = 0
Since
results of all indices calculated
are greater=than
At C4,the
C3->B3->B4;
IC3 = +8-6+6-7
1 or
equal to zero, then, an optimal solution had been reached.

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
and computing the objective function Z:
DESTINATIONS

1
A
SOURCES

C
DEMAND

SUPPLY

10

30

10

50

10

40

20

30

50

50

Z = 4x10+6x30+6x10+7x50+5x10+6x40
= 920

40

60

50
150

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
However, in checking the calculation in Iteration #2, there is
an improvement index equal to zero. This means that there
is an ALTERNATE optimum solution:
In Iteration #2 :
At A3, A3->C3->C1->A1;

IA3 = +8-6+5-4 = 3

## At A4, A4->B4->B3->C3->C1->A1; IA4 = +8-7+6-6+5-4 =

2
At B1, B1->B3->C3->C1;
IB1 = +6-6+6-5 = 1
At B2, B2->B3->C3->C1->A1->A2; IB2 = +8-6+6-5+4-6 =
1
At C2, C2->C1->A1->A2;
IC2 = +7-5+4-6 = 0
At C4, C3->B3->B4;

IC3 = +8-6+6-7 = 1

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
To calculate for the alternate optimum solution, again select the
smallest number found in this path/loop containing minus(-) signs.
This number is added to all cells on the closed path/loop with
plus(+) signs and subtracted from all cells on the path assigned with
minus(-) signs.
Hence, at C2->C1->A1DESTINATIONS
>A2,
1
4
A

SOURCES

10 +
10

10

SUPPLY

30 30
10

40

60

DEMAND

10 10
10
20

10

30

10

50

50

40
50

50

150

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
Then the alternate optimum solution with objective function
Z:
DESTINATIONS

1
A
SOURCES

C
DEMAND

SUPPLY

20

20

10

50

10

40

20

30

50

50

Z = 4x20+6x20+6x10+7x50+7x10+6x40
= 920

40

60

50
150

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
DEGENERACY
When the number of empty/occupied cells in any solution
(either initial or later) of the transportation table is not equal
to the number of rows plus the number of columns minus 1
(i.e. m+n-1) the solution is called DEGENERATE
Example: m + n -1 = 3 + 4 -1 =
6
DESTINATIONS

1
A
SOURCES

B
C
DEMAND

SUPPLY

20

20

10

50

50

20

30

50

50

40
60
50
150

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method
DEGENERACY
To handle degenerate problems, artificially create an occupied
cell by placing a zero (representing a fake shipment) in one
of the unused cells. Treating this cell as if it were occupied, it
must be chosen in such a position as to allow all steppingstone paths to be traced. Then, all stepping-stone paths can
be closed and improvement indices computed.
Example:

DESTINATIONS

1
A
SOURCES

B
C
DEMAND

SUPPLY

20

20

10

50

50

20

30

50

50

40
60
50
150

Optimum Solution:
Stepping-Stone Method

QUESTIONS?

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