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INTRODUCTION

TO CONTROL
SYSTEMS
BEKC 3533

INFO

Name: Tarmizi Bin Ahmad Izzuddin


Ext: 06-555 2361
Email: tarmizi@utem.edu.my
Room: A/3-15
Qualifications

Diploma in Electronics Engineering, UTM


Degree in Electrical Engineering (Control &
Instrumentation), UiTM
MSc. Advanced Process Control, UTP

INFO

Lectures: 3 hours per week

Tuesday: 4pm 6pm


Wednesday: 8am 9am
Thursday: 10am 11am

Tutorial?: 1 hour per week


Text Book: Control Systems Engineering,
Norman Nise. (Compulsory), RM73
Chapters: 10

LEARNING OUTCOME

Describe the basic features and


configuration of control systems
Apply appropriate techniques to perform
block diagram reduction of multiple
subsystems in order to obtain its transfer
function
Construct the mathematical model for
electrical, mechanical and
electromechanical linear time invariant
systems in frequency domain and time
domain

LEARNING OUTCOME cont.

Analyze the transient and steady state


performance for first and second order
systems
Sketch and describe the root locus of a
system
Construct the asymptotic approximation
Bode plots for first order and second
order systems
Other references:

Modern Control Systems - Bishop, Dorf


Modern Control Systems Ogata

ASSESSMENT

Quiz: 5%

Every chapter
Pop quiz

Test: 30%
Assignments: 15%
Final Exam: 50%

INTRODUCTION TO
CONTROL SYSTEM
CHAPTER 1

OBJECTIVES

Define the control system


State the advantages of control system
Describe the response characteristics, open-loop and
closed-loop systems
Find out the differences between open-loop and
closed loop systems
State the analysis and design objectives of control
system
Describe the terms in control system such as input,
output, controller, feedback, plant, transient response,
steady-state response, steady-state error and stability.

WHAT IS CONTROL?

WHAT IS CONTROL
SYSTEMS?

Control systems are an integral part of


modern society.
Numerous applications are all around us.
Basic concept

Water pipe
Steering wheel

CONTROL SYSTEM
DEFINITIONS

Consists of subsystems and processes


(or plants) assembled for the purpose of
controlling the output of processes.
In other word, a control system provides
an output or response for a given input
or stimulus.

RESPONSE
CHARACTERISTICS

OPEN LOOP CONTROL


SYSTEMS

CLOSE LOOP CONTROL


SYSTEMS

OPEN & CLOSE LOOP CONTROL SYSTEMS


OPEN LOOP CONTROL
SYSTEMS

CLOSE LOOP CONTROL


SYSTEMS

Does not have the feedback path.

Output response: not accurate.

Sensitive to noise, disturbances and


changes in the environment.

The system cannot correct the


disturbances.

Simple and inexpensive.

Have the feedback path.


Output response: greater
accuracy.

Less sensitive to noise,


disturbances and changes in the
environment.

The system can compare the


output response with the input
and make a correction if there is
any difference.
More complex and expensive.

ANALYSIS & DESIGN


OBJECTIVES

Control systems are dynamic: they


response to an input by undergoing a
transient response before reaching
steady-state response that generally
resembles the input.
3 major objectives:

Producing the desired transient response


Reducing steady-state error
Achieving stability

ANALYSIS & DESIGN


OBJECTIVES

Transient Response

Too fast or too slow


Have to analyze the system for its existing
transient response. Then, adjust parameters or
design components to yield a desired transient
response.

Steady State Response

Resembles the input


Define steady-state errors quantitatively
Analyze a systems steady-state error
Design corrective action to reduce this error

ANALYSIS & DESIGN


OBJECTIVES

Stability

The transient response is the sum of natural


and forced responses with the natural
response is large.
The steady-state response is also the sum of
natural and forced responses with natural
response is small.

ANALYSIS & DESIGN


OBJECTIVES

For a control system to be useful, natural


response must approach zero.
If natural response much greater than
forced response, the system is no longer
controlled. This condition called
instability.
Control system must be design to be
stable. If the system is stable, the proper
transient response and steady-state
error characteristics can be designed.

THE END
THANK YOU