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Statistical Quality Control

Control Charts For


Attributes

SPC Selection Chart

n 10

Introduction
Attribute
Those quality characteristics that conform to
specifications or do not conform to
specifications.
There are two types:
1.
Where measurements are not possible ( ex.
Visual inspection, scratches, missing parts
etc.
2.
Where measurements can be made but are
not made because of time , cost , or need
( ex, using go-no-go gage instead of
measuring diameter).

Attribute Data

If item does not conform to standard on one or


more of these characteristics, it is classified as
nonconforming
Conforming / Nonconforming units
Non-defective / Defected units
Good / Bad
Pass / Fail
Nonconforming unit will contain at least one
nonconformity
Nonconformities / Defects
Each specific point at which a specification is
not satisfied
ex: scratch, chip, dirty spots, accident
4

Introduction

Descriptive terms are used

A nonconformity is a departure of a quality


characteristic from its intended level.

The definition of a defect is similar, except if is


concerned with satisfying usage
requirements.
The

term nonconforming unit is used to


describe a unit of product or service
containing at least one nonconformity.

Attributes Vs Variable Charts

Variable data can be changed to attribute. The


converse is not true

Attribute data may contain many quality


characteristics in one chart, while variable
data should be controlled by a separate control
chart for each quality characteristic which
would be too expensive and impractical.
6

Introduction
Types of Attribute Charts:

A.

There are two different groups of control charts for attributes.


group of charts for nonconforming units.
1. A proportion, p, chart shows the proportion nonconforming
in a sample or subgroup.
2. Another chart in the group is for number nonconforming,
np.

B.

Another group of charts is for nonconformities.


1. c chart shows the count of nonconformities in an inspected
unit.
2. u chart, which is for the count of nonconformities per unit.
7

SPC Selection Chart for Attributes


Attribute Count

Count pieces or
units

n fixed

Count
occurrences

n varies

np chart

P chart

n fixed

P chart

n varies

C chart

U chart

U chart

Control charts for non conforming units


p chart, np chart

Objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Determine the average quality level.


Bring to the attention of management any changes in the average.
Improve the product quality.
Evaluate the quality performance of operating and management personnel.
Suggest places to use X and R charts.
Determine acceptance criteria of a product before shipment to the customer.

P-Chart

Used for data that consist of the proportion of the


number of occurrences of an event to the total
number of occurrences

Control one quality characteristic or more

P is usually quite small, say 0.05 or less

Subgroup size must be quite large. It could be


constant or variable

Measure the quality produced by a work center,


department, shift, operator(s)..etc.

P-Chart construction for constant


subgroup size

General procedures are:

1.

Select the quality characteristic(s).

2.

Determine the subgroup size

3.

Collect the data

4.

Calculate the trial central line and control limits

5.

Establish the revised central line and control


limits

1. Select the Quality Characteristic(s).


p chart can be established to control the proportion nonconforming of
A.

single quality characteristic,

B.

a group of quality characteristics,

C.

a part,

D.

an entire product, or

E.

a number of products.

It also can be established for performance control of


1.

Operator(s)

2.

Work center

3.

Department

4.

Shift

5.

Plant

6.

Corporation

2. Determine the subgroup size and


method

Subgroup size of the p chart can be either variable or constant.

The selection of the subgroup size requires some preliminary


observations to assure good chart.

A minimum size of 50 is suggested as a starting point.

3. Collect data

The third step requires data to be collected for at


least 25 Subgroups.

Data may also be collected from historical records

The best source is from a check sheet designed


by a project team.

4.Calculate the trial central line and


control limits.
p = np/ n

UCL = p + 3

P (1- p)
n

LCL = p - 3

P (1- p)
n

Where
p = average proportion nonconforming for
many subgroups
n = number inspected in a subgroup
np = number nonconforming in a subgroup
n
1

TABLE 1
Inspection Results of Hair Dryer Blower Motor Department, May
Subgroup
Number

Number
Inspection
n

Number
Nonconforming
np

Proportion
Nonconforming
P

1
2
3
.
.
.
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

300
300
300
.
.
.
300
300
300
300
300
300
300

12
3
9
.
.
.
16
2
5
6
0
3
2

0.040
0.010
0.030
.
.
.
0.053
0.007
0.017
0.020
0.0
0.010
0.007

Total

7500

138

4.Calculate the trial central line and control


limits.
Consider the data in Table 1 as example.
p = np/ n = 138 / 7500 = 0.018
UCL = p + 3

P (1- p)

= 0.018 + 3
= 0.041

LCL = p - 3

n
0.018 (1- 0.018)

= 0.018 - 3

P ( 1- p )
n
0.018 (1- 0.018)

300

300

= - 0.005 or 0.0

The lower control limit value of -0.005 is changed to zero.

When the lower control limit is positive, it may in some cases be


changed to zero.

4.Calculate the trial central line and


control limits.
Fraction nonconforming (p)

0.053
UCL = 0.041

0.04

0.03

0.02

P = 0.018

0.01

LCL = 0
1

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Subgroup

Figure 1: p Chart to illustrate the Trail Central Line and Control Limits
Using the Data of Table 1
1

5. Establish the revised central line and


control limits

np npd
pnew
n nd
p 0 pnew
p 0(1 p 0)
UCL P 0 3
n
p 0(1 p 0)
LCL P 0 3
n
138 16
pnew
7500 300
0.017
1

5. Establish the revised central line and


control limits
p 0(1 p 0)
UCL P 0 3
n
0.017(1 0.017)
UCL 0.017 3
300
0.039
LCL P 0 3

p 0(1 p 0)
n

0.017(1 0.017)
300
- 0.005 or 0.0

LCL 0.017 3

The revised control limits and the central line are shown in Figure 2.
2

Fraction nonconforming (p)

5. Establish the revised central line and


control limits

0.040

UCL = 0.039
UCL = 0.036
UCL = 0.027

0.030

P0 = 0.017

P0 = 0.014

0.020

P0 = 0.010

0.010
0

June

July

August

LCL

Figure 2: Continuing Use of the p Chart for Representative Value of the


Proportion Nonconforming, p
2

P-Chart construction for variable


subgroup size

p charts should be developed and used with a constant


subgroup size. This situation is not possible when p chart is
used for 100% inspection of output that varies from day to
day.

Since the control limits are a function of the subgroup size, n,


the control limits will vary with subgroup size. Therefore ,
they need to be calculated for each subgroup

The procedures of data collection, trial central line and


control limits, and revised central line and control limits are
the same as those for a p chart with constant subgroup size.

P-Chart construction for variable


subgroup size

Example:

A computer modern manufacturer has collected data from


the final test of the product for the end of March and all of
April. Subgroup size was one days inspection results. See
table 2

TABLE 2
Preliminary Data of Computer Modern Final Test and Control Limits for
Each subgroup.

SUBGROUP
March
April

NUMBER
INSPECTED
n

29
30
31
1

2.385
1.451
1.935
2.450

2
5
6
7
8
9
12
13
14
15
16
19
20
21
22
23
26
27

1.997
2.168
1.941
1.962
2.244
1.238
2.289
1.464
2.061
1.667
2.350
2.354
1.509
2,190
2.678
2.252
1.641
1.782

28
29
30

NUMBER
NONCONFORMING
np
55
18
50
42

39
52
47
34
29
53
45
26
47
34
31
38
28
30
113
58
34
19

FRACTION
NONCONFORMING
p
0.023
0.012
0.026
0.017

0.020
0.024
0.024
0.017
0.013
0.043
0.020
0.018
0.023
0.020
0.013
0.016
0.018
0.014
0.042
0.026
0.021
0.011

LIMIT
UCL

0.029
0.031
0.030
0.028

0.029
0.029
0.030
0.030
0.029
0.032
0.029
0.031
0.029
0.030
0.029
0.029
0.031
0.029
0.028
0.029
0.030
0.030

0.011
0.009
0.010
0.012

0.011
0.011
0.010
0.010
0.011
0.008
0.011
0.009
0.011
0.010
0.011
0.011
0.009
0.011
0.012
0.011
0.010
0.010

1.993

30

0.015

0.030

0.010

2.382
2.132

17
46

0.007
0.022

0.029
0.029

0.011
0.011

50,515

LCL

1,015
2

P-Chart construction for variable subgroup


size
Since the subgroup size changes each day limits must be
calculated for each day
p=

np

1015

= 0.020

n
50,515
Using p, the control limits for each day can be obtained. For March 29,
the limits are
UCL29

p (1 p)
=p+3
n
0.020(1 0.020)
= 0.020 + 3
2382
= 0.029
p(1 p)
= p3
n29

LCL29

= 0.020 + 3
= 0.011

0.020(1 0.020)
2382
2

3. P- chart Construction for variable


subgroup size
For March 30 the control limits are
UCL30

=p+3

= 0.020 + 3

p (1 p)
n
0.020(1 0.020)
2132

= 0.031

LCL30

= p3

= 0.020 - 3
= 0.009

p(1 p)
n3

0.020(1 0.020)
2132

The same calculations are done for the remaining subgroups.

P- chart Construction for variable subgroup


size

Since n is the only variable that is changing, it is possible to


simplify the calculations as follows;
CLs

3
= p

= 0.020
= 0.020

p(1 p)
n
3

0.020(1 0.020)
0.42

n
A Graphical illustration of the trial control limits, central line, and
subgroup values are shown in Figure 3.
Note that as the subgroup size gets larger, the control limits are
closer together
2

P- chart Construction for variable subgroup


size
0.042

Fraction Nonconforming

0.043

UCL

P = 0.02

LCL
0.007

March

April

Figure 3: Preliminary data, central line, and trial control limits


2

P- chart Construction for variable subgroup size

np npd
Pnew =
n nd
=
=
po

1015 53 113 17
50,515 1238 2678 2382
0.019
=

0.019

Po, is used to calculate upper and lower control limits for the next
period.
The limits cannot be calculated until the end of each day, when the
subgroup size,,n., is known.
Table 3 shows the inspection results for three working days in May.
Control limits and, the fraction nonconforming for May 3 are as follows:

P- chart Construction for variable


subgroup size

TABLE 3
Inspection Results for May 3, 4, and 5.
Subgroup
May

3
4
5

Number
Inspected

Number
Nonconforming

1535
2262
1872

31
28
45

Calculation are made for. May 3, 4 and 5 and the results posted to
the chart in Figure 4.
3

P- chart Construction for variable


subgroup size

Control limits and, the fraction nonconforming for May 3 are


as follows:
PMay 3
n
Po(1 Po)
UCLMay 3
=
nMay 3

np

=
1535

31

0.020

Po + 3

0.019(1 0.019)
=
0.019 + 3
1535
=

0.029

Po(1 Po)
LCLMay 3
=
nMay 3

Po - 3

0.019(1 0.019)
=
0.019 - 3
1535
=
0.009
3

P- chart Construction for variable


subgroup size

Fraction Nonconforming

0.030

UCL

0.020

0.010

P0 = 0.019

LCL

May

June

Figure 4: Control limits and fraction nonconforming for first three


working days in may.
3

P- chart Construction for variable subgroup size


Minimizing The Effect of Variable Subgroups

When the control limits vary, it presents an unattractive chart that


is difficult to explain to operating personnel.

Control Limits for an average subgroup size


nav

50,515

2020.6,

say 2000

g
25
Using a value of 2000 for the subgroup size, n, and p o = 0.019, the
upper and lower control limits become
UCL

= Po + 3

= 0.019 + 3
= 0.028

Po(1 Po)
nav
0.019(1 0.019)
2000

P- chart Construction for variable subgroup size

Minimizing The Effect of Variable Subgroups


Control Limits for an average subgroup size(Cont)

LCL

= Po - 3

Po(1 Po)
nav
0.019(1 0.019)

= 0.019 - 3

2000

= 0.010

It is not necessary to calculate individual control limits as long


as the subgroup size does not deviate substantially from the
average, say 15%.
3

P- chart Construction for variable subgroup size

Fraction nonconforming (p)

Minimizing The Effect of Variable Subgroups


UCL = (n =2000)

P0= 0.019

LCL = (n =2000)

LCL = 0

May

June

Figure 5: Chart for May data illustrating use of an average subgroup


size
3

np- chart Construction for constant


subgroup size

The number nonconforming chart (np chart) is almost the same as


the p chart; however, you would not use both for the same objective.

The np chart is easier for operating personnel to understand than


the p Chart. One limitation of an np chart is the requirement that
the subgroup size be constant.

Central line

= npo

Control limits =

npo 3

npo(1 po)

If the fraction nonconforming po is unknown, then it must be


determined by collecting data.

np- chart Construction for constant


subgroup size
EXAMPLE PROBLEM

A government agency samples 200 documents per day from a daily


lot of 6000. From past records the standard or reference value for
the fraction nonconforming, po, is 0.075.

Central line and control limit calculation are

npo =200(0.075) = 15.0


UCL = npo + 3 npo(1 po) LCL = npo 3
= 15 + 3
= 26.2

15(1 0.075)
= 3.8

npo(1 - po)

= 15 3 15(1 0.075)

The control chart is shown in Figure 6 for four weeks in October.

Number Nonconforming Chart

Number nonconforming (np)

n = 200

UCL = 26.2

20

nP0 = 15.0

10

LCL = 3.8

6-10

13-17

20-24

27-31

October
Figure 6 :

Number nonconforming chart (np chart).


3

Process Capability

The process capability is the central line of the


control chart.

The 5.0% value is the process capability and the plotted


points vary from the capability within the control limits.

If the 5% value is not satisfactory, then management


must initiate the procedures and provide the
resources to take the necessary corrective action.

When the plotted point is outside the control limit,


operating personnel are usually responsible.

Process Capability
UCL

Percent nonconforming

Operator responsibility

UCL
n = 500

Variation

UCL

n = 200

n = 50
100P0 = 5.0%

LCL
LCL

Management
Responsibility

Variation

LCL

Operator responsibility

Figure 7: Process capability explanation and responsibility

Control Charts For


Nonconformities

Control charts for count of


nonconformities
c chart, u chart

The other group of attribute charts is the nonconformity


charts. The nonconformities chart controls the count of
nonconformities within the product .

There are two types of charts: count of nonconformities (c)


chart and count of nonconformities per unit (u) chart.

These charts are based on the Poisson distribution.

The occurrences are independent.

The control limits for charts for nonconformities are based on


3 from the central line.

Control charts for count of


nonconformities
c chart, u chart
Objectives
The objectives of charts for count of nonconformities are to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Determine the average quality level as a benchmark or starting point


Bring to the attention of management any changes in the average.
Improve the product quality.
Evaluate the quality performance of operating and management
personnel.
Suggest places to use the X and R charts.
Provide information concerning the acceptability of the product prior to
shipment.
These objectives are almost identical to those for non-conforming charts.

c - Chart Construction

The procedures for the construction of a c chart


are the same as those for the p chart:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

Select the quality characteristic (s).


Determine the subgroup size and method.
Collect the data
Calculate the trial central line and control
limits.
Establish the revised central line and control
limits.

c - Chart Construction
1. Select the Quality Characteristic(s).
c chart ( like p chart ) can be established to control :
A.

single quality characteristic,

B.

a group of quality characteristics,

C.

a part,

D.

an entire product, or

E.

a number of products.

It also can be established for performance control of


1.

Operator(s)

2.

Work center

3.

Department

4.

Shift

5.

Plant

6.

Corporation

c - Chart Construction
2. Determine the subgroup size and method

The size of a c chart is one inspected unit. An inspected unit could


be one airplane, one car, 1000 square meter of cloth, one lot of a
product..and so forth.

The method of obtaining the sample can either be by audit or on-line

3. Collect data

The third step requires data to be collected for at least 25


Subgroups.

Data can be collected from historical data using a check sheet as


shown in Table 4

C - Chart Construction
Table 5
Count of non-conformities (c) by produced 25 car (model x)
COUNT
COUNT
SERIAL
OF
SERIAL
NUMBER
NONCONFORMITIES
COMMENT
COMMENT

MY
MY
MY
MY
MY
MY
MY
MY
MY
MY
MY
MY

102
113
121
125
132
143
150
152
164
166
172
184

MY 185

7
6
6
3
20
8
6
1
0
5
14
3

MY 198
3
MY 208
2
MY 222
7
MY 235
5
assignable cause
MY 258
2
MY 259
8
MY 264
0
MY 267
4
MY 278
chance cause
MY 288
5
1

Total

OF
NUMBER

MY 241

14
MY281

assignable cause
4

NONCONFORMITIES

c = 141

C - Chart Construction
4. Calculate the trial central line and control limits.

UCL C 3 C
LCL C 3 C
Where c is the average count of nonconformities c =c/g, For the
data in Table 4, the calculations are:

C - Chart Construction

c 141

5.64
g

25

UCL c 3 c

LCL c 3 c

5.64 3 5.64

5.64 3 5.64

12.76

1.48, or 0

Since a lower control limit of 1.48 is impossible, it is changed to zero.

Count of Nonconformities (c)

C - chart Construction
20
14

14
UCL = 12.76

c = 5.64

Serial Numbers
FIG. 8 Control chart for count of nonconformities (c chart), Using preliminary data
5

C - chart Construction
5.Establish the revised central line and control
limits.

c new

cc

g gd

Where
cd = count of nonconformities in the discarded
subgroups
gd = number of discarded subgroups

C - chart Construction

The revised 3. Control limits are found using the formulas.

UCL c0 3 c0
LCL c0 3 c0

Using the information from Figure 9 and Table 4, revised


limits can be obtained.

c new

cc

g gd

141 20 14
25 2
4.65

C - chart Construction

Since cnew is the best estimate of the line, co = 4.65. The revised
control limits for the c chart are:

UCL c0 3 c0
4.65 3 4.65
11.1

LCL c0 3 c0
4.65 3 4.65
1.82 , or 0

These control limits are used to start the chart beginning with
cars produced during the coming days and are shown in Figure
9.

C - chart Construction
Type of
Nonconformity
2

mechanical

1
1

others

Count of
Nonconformities (c)

Serial
Number

1
2

1
3

305
310
321
354
373
409
441
469
485
487

electrical

Total

1
3

UCL = 11.1
UCL = 7.9

10

C0 = 4.65
C0 = 3.05

June
FIG. 9

40
7
47
1
48
5
49

129
150
178
185
209
230
260
283
303
321
347
359

visual

August
c Chart for Canoe blemish non-conformities
5

Chart For Count Of Non-conformities/ Unit (u


Chart)

The u chart is mathematically equivalent to the c chart, it is used when the


subgroup size is not constant.
Formulas used for the procedure are:

u
n

c
u
n
UCL u 3

Where

c=
n=
u=
u=

u
n

LCL u 3

u
n

count of nonconformities in a subgroup


number inspected in a subgroup
count of nonconformities/unit in a subgroup
average count of nonconformities/unit for
many subgroups
5

Chart For Count Of Nonconformities/ Unit


(u Chart)

The u chart will be illustrated by an example.

Each day a clerk inspects the waybills of a small


overnight air freight company for errors. Because
the number of waybills varies from day to day, a u
chart is the appropriate technique. Table 6 shows the
collected data through 30 working days.

TABLE 6
Count of Non-conformities per unit for waybills

DATE
UCL
Jan.

30
31
Feb.
1
2
3
4
6
7
8
9
10
11
13
14
15
16
17
18
20
21
22
23
24
25
27
28
Mar. 1
2
3
4

NUMBER
INSPECTED
n
LCL

COUNT
NONCONFORMITIES
c

110
82
96
115
108
56
120
98
102
115
88
71
95
103
113
85
101
42
97
92
100
115
99
57
89
101
122
105
98
48

Total

NONCONFORMITIES
PER UNIT
u

120
94
89
162
150
82
143
134
97
145
128
83
120
116
127
92
140
60
121
108
131
119
93
88
107
105
143
132
100
60

2823

1.09
1.15
.93
1.41
1.39
1.46
1.19
1.37
.95
1.26
1.45
1.16
1.26
1.13
1.12
1.08
1.39
1.19
1.25
1.17
1.31
1.03
.94
1.54
1.20
1.04
1.17
1.26
1.02
1.25

3389

1.51
1.56
1.53
1.50
1.51
1.64
1.50
1.53
1.53
1.50
1.55
1.59
1.54
1.52
1.51
1.56
1.53
1.70
1.53
1.54
1.53
1.50
1.53
1.64
1.55
1.53
1.49
1.52
1.53
1.67

0.89
0.84
0.87
0.90
0.89
0.76
0.90
0.87
0.87
0.90
0.85
0.81
0.86
0.88
0.89
0.84
0.87
0.70
0.87
0.86
0.87
0.90
0.87
0.76
0.85
0.87
0.91
0.88
0.87
0.73

Chart For Count Of Nonconformities/ Unit


(u Chart)

The calculation for the trial central line is:

c 3389

1.20
n 2823
u
UCLJan 30 u 3 nJan 30
1.2 3

UCLJan 30 u 3

1.20
110

1.2 3

1.51

u
nJan 30

1.20
110

0.89
u Jan30

cJan30 120

1.09
nJan 30 110
5

Chart For Count Of Nonconformities/ Unit (u


Chart)

To determine control limits for the next 5-week period, we can use an average subgroup size.

Nonconformities /Unit
(u)

1.7

UCL

1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
U = 1.20

1.2
1.1
1

0.9
0.8

UCL

0.7
0.6
30

10

13

15

17

20

22

24

27

Fig. 10 U Chart For Errors On Waybills


5

Chart For Count Of Nonconformities/ Unit (u Chart)


1.70
1.60
UCL

Nonconformities /Unit
(u)

1.50
1.40
1.30

u0

1.20
1.10
1.00
0.90

LCL

0.80
0.70

7
5
3
31 29 27
24 22 20 17
Mar.
Fig.
.
Apr 11 U Chart For next period

15

13

10

8
6

attribute Control Charts

Attribute Chart

Sample
Size

Nonconforming
Units

Nonconformiti
es

Constant

np

c
(n = 1)

Constant
Or Varies

Fig. 12 shows when to use the various attribute charts.


6