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Chapter 3:

Methodology
Bauyon, HK

Parts of Methodology
Research Design
Sampling Technique (Population &
Sample)
Research Locale
Research Instruments
Data Gathering procedures
Statistical Treatment of Data
Bioethical considerations

Research Design

Research Design
This describes the research mode
whether it is true experimental or
quasi-experimental design,
descriptive or survey research,
historical research, qualitative
research, ethnographic and etc.

Research Design is
The
arrangement of
conditions for
collection and
analysis of data
in a manner that
aims to
combine
relevance to
the research
purpose with
economy in
procedure.

Blueprint of
the study. It
guides the
collection,
measurement
and analysis of
data.

A plan or
structure of
the
investigation
in order to
obtain answers
to research
questions.

Parts of Research Design


Sampling
Design
Which
deals with
the
methods
of
selecting
items to
be
observed

Observatio
nal Design

Which
relates to
the
condition
under
which the
observation
are to be
created

Statistica
l Design
Which
concern the
question of
how the
information
and the data
gathered are
to be
analyzed

Operatio
nal
Design
Which
deals with
techniques
by which
the
procedures
satisfied in
sampling.

3 Types of Research Design


Exploratory Design - formulating a problem
for more precise investigation or of developing
the working hypotheses from an operational
point of view; discovery of ideas and insights
Descriptive Design - describing the
characteristics of a particular individual, or of a
group, whereas diagnostic research studies
determine frequency with w/c something occurs
or its association with something else
Experimental Design - framework or structure
of an experiment.

Research Design
Approaches
Type

Purpose

Experimen
tal

Time
frame

Degree of
Control

Examples

Test for
Current
cause/effect
relationships

High

Comparing
two types of
treatment

Quasiexperimen
tal

Test for
Current or
cause/effect past
relationships
without full
control

Moderate to
high

Gender
differences
in
visual/spatia
l abilities

Ex post
facto

Examine the Past and


effect of
current
past event
on current
functioning

Low to
medium

Relationship
between
history of
child abuse
and
depression

Type

Purpose

Time frame Degree of


control

Examples

Cohortsequential

Examine
change in
varying time

Future

Low to
moderate

How motherchild
negativity
changed
over
adolescence

Survey

Assess
opinions or
characteristi
cs that exist
at a given
time

Current

None or low

Voting
preferences
before an
election

Qualitative

Discover
Past or
potential
current
relationships
; descriptive

None or low

Peoples
experiences
of quit
smoking

Sampling
Techniques

Sampling Techniques
The proportion of the population to
be used must have been determined
already and the computation of the
sample must have been finished.
Researcher must write about the
complete procedure he used in
determining his sample.

Sampling Design includes:


Size of the population
Study population
Margin of error and the proportion of the
study population
Type or technique of sampling used
Actual computation of the sample; and
The sample

Types of Sampling
Techniques
1. Probability sampling
2. Non-probability sampling

1. Probability sampling
Simple random
sampling

Systemic
sampling

Stratified
sampling

each individual is
chosen randomly
and entirely by
chance, such that
each individual
has the same
probability of
being chosen at
any stage during
the sampling
process

a statistical
method involving
the selection of
elements from an
ordered sampling
frame (criteria or
reference/sequen
ce of selection)

the population
embraces a
number of distinct
categories, the
frame can be
organized by
these categories
into separate
strata. Each
stratum is then
sampled as an
independent subpopulation, out of
which individual
elements can be
randomly
selected.

2. Non-probability
sampling
Quota sampling
the population
is first
segmented into
mutually
exclusive subgroups, just as
in stratified
sampling. Then
judgment is
used to select
the subjects or
units from each
segment based
on specified
proportion

Accidental
sampling
involves the
sample being
drawn from
that part of the
population
which is close
to hand

Panel sampling
method of first
selecting a
group of
participants
through a
random
sampling
method and
then asking
that group for
(potentially the
same)
information
several times
over a period of
time

Steps in Computing the Size of a


Sample
Determine the
size of the study
population.

Add samples
from all the
final
sampling
strata to find
the total
sample.

Decide on the
margin of error; it
should not be
higher than 5%.
Probably, 3% is
ideal

Multiply the
number of
sampling units in
each final
sampling stratum
by the rate (%) to
find the sample
from each final
sampling stratum

Use the formula:

In which:
n= size of sample
N= size of population
e= margin of error

If the sampling is
multistage or if the
population is
stratefied, compute
the sample
proportion by
dividing the result in
step no. 3 by the
population

Example
Example. Suppose an investigation of the teaching of science in the
high schools of a religion is to be conducted, in which the science
teachers are to be respondents. There are 2243 teachers handling
biological sciences, 1406 handling chemical sciences, and 992
teachers handling physical sciences, a total of 4641 teachers.
The sampling procedure follows:
Step 1. the population is 4,641
Step 2. the margin of error to be used is 3%
Step 3. using the formula
n=

4641
1+ 4641 (.03)

4641
1 + 4641 (.0009)

= 4641
1+4.1769
= 4641
5.1769
= 896.4825 ( this may not be rounded to 900 for
convenience) this is the sample.
Step 4. the teachers are group into three categories
according to the branch of science they are handling, so
we use stratefied sampling.
Sample proportion (%) = n
N

= 900
4641
=.1939

.1939 may be rounded off to .20 or 20% for convenience of


computation.

Step 5 and 6
Teachers
handling

Number

sample

Biological
sciences

2243

20

449

Chemical
sciences

1406

20

281

Physical
sciences

992

20

198

Total:

4641

The total sample is 928.

928

Research Locale

Research Locale
This discusses the place or setting of
the study. It describes in brief the
place where the study is conducted.
Only important features which have
the bearing on the present study are
included.
It shows the target population.

Research
Instruments

Research Instruments
A survey, questionnaire, test, scale,
rating, or tool designed to measure the
variable(s), characteristic(s), or
information of interest, often a
behavioral or psychological
characteristic.
They are used to gauge some quality or
ability of your subjects.
Purpose: to elicit the data for your study.

Here are some possible instruments/procedures:


Tests of various skills or behaviors (language
proficiency in general, particular language skills,
psychological traits, etc.) in various formats (multiplechoice, open response, etc.)
Interviews (unstructured or structured)
Questionnaires (mailed or in-person)
Observations of students or teachers
Diaries kept by language learners or teachers
Reviews of school records or documents
Verbal self-reports by learners (introspective or
retrospective)
(Check the validity and reliability of tests and instruments)

Research Instrument
This explains the specific type of research
instrument used such as questionnaire,
checklist, questionnaire-checklists, structured
interview, teachermade test, standardized
instrument which are adopted or borrowed with
permission from the author or from other
sources.
The parts of the instruments should be
explained and what bits of information are
derived.
The establishment of validity and reliability
should be explained and only experts should be
chosen to validate such instrument. Specific

Data Gathering
Procedure

Data Gathering Techniques


Direct or Interview method
Indirect or Questionnaire
method
Registration method
Experimental method

1. Direct or Interview Method


The researcher has direct contact with the
interviewee. The researcher gathers
information by asking questions to the
interviewee.
Example: Multiliver Company would interview
mallers regarding their favorite brand of
toothpaste, soap or shampoo.
Pros: The researcher can get more accurate
answers since clarifications can be made if the
respondent does not understand the question.
Cons: This method is costly and time-consuming

2. Indirect or Questionnaire
Method
The researcher makes use of written questionnaire. The
researcher gives or distributes the questionnaire to the
respondents either by personal delivery or by mail.
Example: Sudoku Sadako would send out questionnaires through
e-mails regarding peoples view and familiariztion on the game
of sudoku.
Pros: The researcher can save on time and money in gathering
the information needed because questionnaires can be given to
a large number of respondents at the same time.
Cons: The researcher cannot expect that all distributed
questionnaire will be retrieved because some respondents
simply ignore the questionnaires.
Clarifications cannot be made if the respondent does not
understand the question.

3. Registration Method
This method is governed by laws.
Example: The number of register professionals
can be found at the Professional Regulation
Commission (PRC). The number of births and
death rates are registered in the National
Statistics Office (NSO).
Pros: This method is the most reliable since it
is enforced by laws.
Cons: Data are limited to what are listed in
the document.

4. Experimental Method
This method is utilized to find out cause and
effect relationships.
Examples: Medical technologists would like to know
the effect of new brand of vitamins on the growth
of toddlers. The new brand will be taken by a set of
toddlers, while another set will be give the already
existing brand. The growth of toddlers will then be
compared to determine which vitamins is better.
Pros: This method goes to beyond plain description
data.
Cons: Care should be taken on making conclusions
to the result of the experiment.

Determining the Sample


Size
Slovins Formula:

Margin of Error
When we use a sample, we do not get the actual
value but just an estimate of the parameter.
Hence, there is an error associated when using
the sample. We call that the margin of error
represented by e
Example:
Suppose we want to find the average height of the third
year students of GSDMSFI. However, due to insufficient
time, only the students in the third floor were used to
estimate the average height. Obviously, the result is not
the actual average height but just an estimate and thus,
there is really an error when we use the sample instead
of the population.

Statistical treatment of
Data

Statistical Treatment of Data


Explain how each statistical test is
used in the treatment of data.
If the research instrument included
options which are scaled, explain
how each scale is given the weight,
its interval and class limits.

Statistical Treatment of Data


The kind of statistical treatment
depends upon the nature of the
problem, especially the specific
problems, and the nature of the data
gathered.
The explicitly hypotheses particularly
determine the kind of statistics to be
used.

Bioethical
Considerations

General Principal Ethics


Honesty

Objectivity

Integrity

Carefulness

Openness

Respect for
Intellectual
property

Confidentia
lity

Responsible
publication

Responsible
mentoring

General Principal Ethics


Respect for
colleagues
Nondiscriminati
on

Social
responsibili
ty

Competenc
e

Legality

Human
subjects
protection

Animal care

General
Principal
Ethics
The following is a rough and general summary of some ethical
principals that various codes address*:
Honesty
- Strive for honesty in all scientific communications. Honestly
report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication
status. Do not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent data. Do not
deceive colleagues, granting agencies, or the public.
Objectivity
- Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data
interpretation, peer review, personnel decisions, grant writing,
expert testimony, and other aspects of research where objectivity
is expected or required. Avoid or minimize bias or self-deception.
Disclose personal or financial interests that may affect research.
Integrity
- Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive
for consistency of thought and action.

Carefulness
- Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine your own
work and the work of your peers. Keep good records of research activities, such as
data collection, research design, and correspondence with agencies or journals.
Openness
- Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to criticism and new ideas.
Respect for Intellectual Property
- Honor patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property. Do not use
unpublished data, methods, or results without permission. Give credit where credit
is due. Give proper acknowledgement or credit for all contributions to research.
Never plagiarize.
Confidentiality
- Protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for
publication, personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records.
Responsible Publication
- Publish in order to advance research and scholarship, not to advance just your
own career. Avoid wasteful and duplicative publication.

Responsible Mentoring
Help to educate, mentor, and advise students. Promote
their welfare and allow them to make their own decisions.

Respect for colleagues


Respect your colleagues and treat them fairly.

Social Responsibility
Strive to promote social good and prevent or mitigate
social harms through research, public education, and
advocacy.

Non-Discrimination
Avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on the
basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or other factors that are not
related to their scientific competence and integrity.

Competence
- Maintain and improve your own professional competence and expertise
through lifelong education and learning; take steps to promote
competence in science as a whole.
Legality
- Know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental
policies.
Animal Care
- Show proper respect and care for animals when using them in research.
Do not conduct unnecessary or poorly designed animal experiments.
Human Subjects Protection
- When conducting research on human subjects, minimize harms and
risks and maximize benefits; respect human dignity, privacy, and
autonomy; take special precautions with vulnerable populations; and
strive to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly.

Example: CHAPTER 3

QUIZ
1. A plan or structure of the investigation in
order to obtain answers to research
questions.
2-6. Parts of Methodology
7-9. 3 examples of research design approaches
10-11 Types of sampling
12-15 Data gathering techniques
16. Slovins formula
17-20. Ethics