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Overview of SATELLITE

Communication

Why Satellite
Communication?
The Earth is a sphere & The microwave
frequencies travel in straight line but to connect
two regions very far away on the two side of the
sphere, the link requires lot of repeaters because
of Earths curvature.
A single satellite can do the magic linking the
continents with one repeater.

Satellite
It is a repeater which receives signal
from Earth at one frequency, amplify
it & transmit it back to Earth at other
frequency.

EARTH STATION
There are two earth station in a
simple Satellite communication link.
One transmits the signal to satellite
called transmitting Earth station.
The other receives the signal from
satellite called receiving Earth
Station.

UPLINK & DOWN LINK


The communication link from
Transmitting earth station to satellite
is called Up-link.
The communication link from
satellite To receiving earth station is
called Down-link.

Altitudes of orbits above the


earth
There are 3 common types of
satellite based on altitude, i.e. GEO,
Orbit
Altitude
Missions possibles
MEO
& LEO
Earth observation,
Low-Earth orbit LEO

250 to 1,500 km

meteorology,
telecommunications
(constellations)

Medium-Earth orbit
MEO

10,000 to 30,000 km

Telecommunications
(constellations),
positioning, science

Geostationary Earth
orbit GEO

35,786 km

Telecommunications,
positioning, science

Between 800 and


27,000 km

Telecommunications

Up to several million
km

Interplanetary
missions

Elliptical orbit
Hyperbolic orbit

GEO, MEO, LEO

Orbital Period
The time taken by a satellite to complete
one rotation in its orbit is called its period.
The GEO satellite takes 23 hrs & 56
minutes & 4.1 Seconds to complete its
rotation which is approximately equal to
the period of rotation of earth around its
axis. This is why it appears to be
stationary by the observer on Earth
moving with the same speed as that of
satellite. So one GEO stationary satellite
can serve a ground user round the clock.

Orbital Period
Satellite
System

Orbital Height
(Km)

Orbital
Velocity
(Km/Sec)

Orbital Period
(H M
S)

Intelsat (GEO)

35,786

3.0747

23 56 4.1

New ICO (MEO)

10,255

4.8954

55 48.4

Iridium (LEO)

1,469

7.1272

55 17.8

Notice as altitude decreases, the velocity must be increased to


minimize the gravitational effect.

Coverage Area of Satellite


The Earth surface covered by
satellite radiations is called FOOT
PRINT. The coverage area is inversely
proportional to frequency. The foot
print will be large if the frequency of
down link is low.

GEO satellite Coverage


One GEO can cover 1/3 of earth
surface so the earth is divided in 3
regions.
1.AOR (Atlantic Ocean Region)
2.POR (Pacific Ocean region)
3.IOR (Indian Ocean region)

FREQUENCIES for Satellite Communication


Letter
Designation

Frequency range

USE

L band

1 to 2GHz

Satellite phone, GPS

S band

2 to 4GHz

Satellite phone

C band

4 to 8GHz

TV transmission

X band

8 to 12GHz

Ku band

12 to 18GHz

K band

18 to 26.5GHz

Ka band

26.5 to 40GHz Satellite Internet

Q band

30 to 50GHz

U band

40 to 60GHz

TV transmission,
Communication

Experimental
Experimental

FREQUENCIES For Uplink &


Down link
Uplink uses higher frequency than the
down link.
Frequency of satellite is always specified
as
UPLINK frequency/ Down link Frequency
e.g. C band 6/4 GHz
Ku band14/11 GHz
Ka band30/20 GHz

Signal Propagation DELAY


Using c= 3*10 ^ 8 m/s & time=
distance(altitude)/ speed

Uplink delay from earth station to


Satellite.
Round trip delay 4* uplink delay.
All other delays in signal coding, compression, & processing on
Satellite & earth Station are neglected.
orbit

Average
altitude of
Orbit

Uplink
Delay

Round trip
delay

LEO

800 Km

2.7 ms

10.8 ms

MEO

10,355 Km

34.5 ms

138 ms

GEO

35,786 Km

119.3 ms

480 ms =
Second

Round trip delay of GEO


signal

Transponder
The BW of satellite is divided into
channels allowing many earth stations to
use this BW. The Electronics to support
each channel is called Transponder.
Each transponder consist of band pass
filter to select particular channel, down
converter & output amplifier.
Each satellite can have a large number of
active & spare transponders typically 12
to 44 active transponder in each satellite.
The total BW of transponder is usually
36,54 or 72 MHz.

BW of satellite divided in 24 (bi


directional) transponder

Transponder

Effect of rain on signal


Rain heavily effects the wireless
communication above 10 GHz.
So Ku band & Ka band will be
effected by rain & specially above 20
GHz the Ka Band link can fail during
heavy rain fall.

Why fup is always Higher than


fdown?
1. The beam of higher frequency is narrow & that of lower is
broad. As the earth station has to target the signal to a
small point (satellite) in space so it does it by using narrow
beam produced by higher frequency. While the Satellite has
to cover a large area on earth to provide services to many
Earth station so it does it by using broad beam produced by
lower frequency.

2. As the rain effects higher frequencies more than lower one


so they need to be boosted up more to overcome the
propagation losses. The Energy can be given to signal much
more easily on earth than on satellite because the satellite
has limited power resources like solar cells & batteries so
we use higher frequencies on Earth & amplify them with
enough power supply resources we have on Earth

Up & down frequencies of C


band

Satellite Signals
Base band signals can be analog or
digital. But the final signal
transmitted towards the satellite or
from the satellite is always analog as
it is an RF signal.

Increasing bandwidth of
Satellite

Multiplexing
Use of Audio & video compression in
telephone & TV signals.
Frequency Reuse
1. Same frequency but orthogonal
polarization.
2. Increasing angular spacing of two
satellites in same orbit using similar
frequencies.

Life of Satellite
A satellite has two life.
1.Design life: it is the predicted life of the
electronic systems working in satellite.
2.Maneuver life: It is the life during which full
maneuver capabilities exist in satellite to
change its position. It depends on fuel tank
storage capacity & it is usually less than
design life.
At the end of useful GEO satellite life , it is
raised to graveyard orbit.

Uses of Satellite
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Military communication
Telecommunication
Satellite phone.
VSAT (very small aperture terminal)
Cable TV
DBS (Direct Broadcast Satellite) TV (with Dish Antenna)
GPS (Global Positioning System)
Satellite Internet
Weather forecasting
Photography
GIS (geographical Information System)
X-Ray & infrared view of universe
Navigation
Deep Space exploration
& many more