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Optimization of Liquid Pipeline

Pressure Control Valve Systems


Roger Shirt, R.W. Shirt Consulting

Outline
Pressure control valves in pipeline service
(Re-) Engineering of control valve installations
Role of IDEAS simulation
Benefits of control valve optimization

Pressure Control Valves in


Pipeline Service
Large network 300 mainline PCVs
PCVs are primary final control element
Disturbances propagated

Pipeline Installations

Pumping stations every 40 miles


3 or 4 lines in parallel
Large SCADA system
PLCs for station control

40 miles

Pump Station Pressure Control

1, 2 or 3 pumps in service
Discharge pressure to prevent line overpressure
Suction pressure override to prevent pump cavitation

<

PIC

Dis c harg e
Pre s s ure

Cas e
Pre s s ure
S uc tio n
Pre s s ure

PT

PIC

PT

PT

Pipeline Characteristics
Pipeline diameters from 20 - 48
Large valves (12 20)
Ball and globe

Electro-hydraulic actuators
Valve/actuators costly (> $100K for capital)
Remote locations
Servicing costly (e.g. frequent field tuning not practical)

Pipeline PCV Locations

Northern Alberta

Andes Mountains,
Columbia

Operating Characteristics

Flow rates: 1000 5000 m 3/hr


Pressure drops: 1 1000 psi
Densities: 500 940 kg/m 3 (batched)
PCVs frequently wide open

Hardisty 3-PCV-1
Valve Position Histogram
50

40

30

20

Frequrency (%)
10

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Valve Position (%)

70

80

90

100

Performance Characteristics
Typical response from wide open conditions
Effectively open-loop
140

100

120
80
100
60

80

60

40

Pressure (psig)

Alarm Breached
Unit Start
Controller Engaged

40

Unit Stopped

Valve Position
20

20

0
17-Mar-03 12:29:10

0
17-Mar-03 12:29:20

17-Mar-03 12:29:30

17-Mar-03 12:29:40

17-Mar-03 12:29:50

17-Mar-03 12:30:00

17-Mar-03 12:30:10

Performance Requirements

Set-point tracking
Maintain desired flow rate (discharge pressure)
Stable operation required

Suction and discharge pressure limits


Safe operation
Station specific (elevation, linefill)
Fast actuator response critical

Value of Simulation

New or replacement installations:


Select best performing valve from several
competitive bids
Provide optimal control valve system settings

At existing sites where pressure control valve


system performance capabilities unknown:
Re-engineer and optimize

Engineered Approach to Control


Valve Performance

Field Tests

Engineered Approach to Control


Valve Performance

Field Tests
Data Analysis

Engineered Approach to Control


Valve Performance

Field Tests
Data Analysis
Simulation Modelling

Engineered Approach to Control


Valve Performance

Field Tests
Data Analysis
Simulation Modelling
Generate Optimal Settings

Engineered Approach to Control


Valve Performance

Field Tests
Data Analysis
Simulation Modelling
Generate Optimal Settings
Implement Settings

Engineered Approach to Control


Valve Performance

Field Tests
Data Analysis
Simulation Modelling
Generate Optimal Settings
Implement Settings
Verify Performance

Field Tests

Valve performance testing at site


ANSI/ISA-75.25.01-2000
OL and CL bump tests

Dynamic Data Collection


0.5 sec sampling rate
(SCADA at 20 sec sampling rate)

Perf. Criterion

Spec.

Unit

Travel

90

deg

Stroke Time

<5

sec

Dead Time

< 0.5

sec

Time Constant

< 1.0

sec

T86

< 2.0

sec

< 0.15

< 1.0

1-2 week operating window Resolution


Hyst+Deadband

Data Analysis

Installed Cv determination

Confirm manufacturers information

Manufacturers tests determined under ideal


piping geometry conditions

Installed Cv Curves (1)

Ineffective Control

Installed Cv Curves (2)

Data Analysis

Simulation model calibration


Each model calibrated against steady-state
process data (8 points)
< 5% standard error typical

Typical Pipeline Model


Study, upstream and downstream stations
Pipeline lengths, elevations
Product properties (density, viscosity, RVP)
Pressure and pump minimum flow constraints

IDEAS Control Valve Object

ISA Standard calculations


in next IDEAS release for both liquids and gas
ANSI/ISA-75.01.01-2002 / IEC 60534-2-1
Flow Equations for Sizing Control Valves

Features:
Choked flow with cavitation versus flashing distinction
Cavitation index (ISA-RP75.23-1995)
Piping geometry effect (line size reduction)
Reynolds Number effect (high viscosity)
Verified examples

Control Valve System Details


Set-point ramping (psi/sec)
Hi-select
Valve calibration (at valve)
Valve travel limiting (in PLC)
Transmitter dynamics
Controller output linearization
Actuator stroking speed
Valve/actuator resolution
Valve/actuator dead-time
Valve/actuator time constant

Gain Curve Analysis


Installed gain curves
Linearity
Effective controllable range

Gain Curve Analysis


Comparison of candidate valves
Linearity, size and positioning of controllable range
Sizing (valve companies) versus performance assessment

Allowable Operating Range


Evaluate gain over allowable operating range
Gain (and other performance parameters) vary
considerably

Output Linearization
Counteract process nonlinearities in controller
Controller

Linearization

Process

Simulator gives complete picture of nonlinearities


Fit function to (normalized) pressure responses
Find a function that gives mirror image of
nonlinearities

Process

Linearization

Output Linearization

Linearized Gain Curves


Consistent gain
consistent closed-loop
response
Larger effective controllable range

Controller Tunings
Maximum process gain (PG) from gain curves
Simulated bump test:

Time constant (TC)


Dead time (DT)
Dynamics of valve
and transmitters

Apply Lambda tuning


rules

Open-Loop Bump Test


248

60

246

55

244

50

psig

IDEAS Simulation
242

45

1st Order Model


Controller Output

240

40
0

10

15

Time (sec)

20

25

30

Controlle

Performance Confirmation Tests


Set-point step tests
Pump starts
Staged isolation valve operation
Hydraulic transients tested

Pressure Drop Wide Open


Minimize pumping energy costs when valve wide
open
Additional 5 psi

$10,000 Cdn/yr

Pressure Drop
Torque Requirements

Cavitation
Cavitation prediction over allowable operating
range
Select valve with lowest cavitation potential
Advise operations of potential cavitating operating regions

Economics
Faster control = closer operation to constraints
Allows pipelines to operate at lower pressures
Large potential pumping energy cost savings
$20-30K/yr (Cdn) for each pump station
Required Actuator Speed
50
45

Existing

40

Re-Engineered

35
30
25

Ex isting Actua tor Stroke Spe e d

20
15

Stroke Speed (sec/100%)


10
Pre fe rre d Stroke Spe e d

5
0
0

25

50

75

100

125

Pre-Start Suction Pressure (psig)

150

175

200

225

Conclusions
Engineered approach means:

Predictable performance
Optimal settings for current service conditions
Increased line stability
Higher throughput, lower pumping energy costs

To date in Enbridge:
40+ evaluations
11 commissioned

Hundreds of potential control valve installations in


Enbridges pipeline network
Unique hydraulics
Repeatable methodology