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Aids to Navigation

Availability, accuracy, limitations
and precautions with Electronic
Navigational Systems
Unit 7: Passage Panning

Aims of this lesson
• To identify the available Electronic Aids to
Navigation (AtoN)
• To understand the expected accuracy of different
• To understand the limitations and precautions of
using different AtoN

Unit 7: Passage Panning

• Be aware of the dangers of over-reliance on the output from.MGN 379 Navigation: Use of Electronic Navigation Aids Summary This note emphasises the need for correct use of navigational equipment by watch-keepers. Unit 7: Passage Panning . • Appreciate the need to cross check position fixing information using other methods. and accuracy of. a single navigational aid. • Be aware of the factors which affect the accuracy of position fixing systems. Key Points:• Be aware that each item of equipment is an aid to navigation. • Recognise the importance of the correct use of navigational aids and knowledge of their limitations.

Electromagnetic Unit 7: Passage Panning . GLONASS and GALILEO • ECDIS • Radar/ARPA • eLoran • Echo sounder • Compass – Gyro.What AtoNs do you have onboard ship? • GNSS and DGNSS – GPS. optical • Speed log – Doppler. GPS. magnetic.

Global Positioning System • Available “world wide” 24/7 • Accurate to about 20m • Inaccurate in higher Latitudes • Operated by US Military • Are able to degrade the signal • Selects from available 24 satellites • Works by measuring the time taken for a signal to travel from the satellite • WGS84 datum • sometimes require additional charted correction Unit 7: Passage Panning .

GPS Limitations & Precautions • How many bridge systems use GPS? • GPS system ‘close to breakdown’ – Network of satellites could begin to fail as early as 2010 • Dilution of Precision – Geometric.Use of Electronic Navigation Aids – 4.5 GNSS – related accidents – 4. Vertical & Time • MGN 379 .6 Datum and Chart Accuracy • Jamming Unit 7: Passage Panning . Horizontal. Positional.

The trial was designed to provide: •An indication of the effect of GPS jamming on the safety of mariners’ •An evaluation of how mariners cope with a sudden loss of GPS as primary navigation input. The service denial of GPS also provided an excellent test environment for the development of the case for eLoran.GPS Jamming trials 2008 The trial was organized to investigate the effect of GPS service denial on maritime navigation. and DGPS monitoring operations. Unit 7: Passage Panning . •An evaluation of the effect on AIS. •An assessment of the performance of eLoran as a backup to global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) •A trial/demonstration on which to continue and expand the case for eLoran. It is important to note that the effect of GPS service denial is the same whether through intentional jamming or unintentional interference. AtoN performance. •An investigation into the performance of the GLAs DGPS service and how it is affected by GPS jamming.

when GPS is unavailable. which enable automatic execution of a passage plan on autopilot. chart stabilization.1 m (95%). As a result. which is comparable to stand-alone. AtoNs — DGPS reference stations can be jammed and the impact may results in the absence of DGPS corrections. On people — People are conditioned to expect excellent GPS performance. The number of alarms that can sound on the bridge can be distracting. eLoran was unaffected by GPS jamming and demonstrated an accuracy of 8. radar parallel-indexing). Increased use of ECDIS will increase the attendant risks. depending on the system design.GPS Jamming The main conclusion is that GPS service denial has a significant impact on maritime safety: • • • • • On shore — The marine picture presented to Vessel Traffic Services/Management (VTS) will be confused as AIS information with erroneous positions and high-velocities conflicts with the radar information. If this system is operating at a time when jamming occurs then. potentially leading to extremely hazardous consequences. and DSC emergency communications will be lost if they are based on GPS. At this point. eLoran can provide a PNT (position. navigation.g. continuation of navigational safety is dependent on mariners’ abilities to operate effectively using alternative techniques (e. Unit 7: Passage Panning . situational awareness. Moreover. Moving to other navigation techniques can cause an increase in bridge workload. the vessel’s course and heading may change without informing the watchkeeper. and timing) input to all maritime systems. single-frequency GPS. Consequently. eLoran can be used to detect erroneous positions and high velocities that may be experienced during GPS service denial. AIS used by an AtoN may broadcast incorrect information. Some vessels have integrated bridge systems. when ships’ crews fail to recognise that the GPS service is being interfered with and/or there is a loss of familiarity with alternative methods of navigation or situational awareness. On ships — Navigation.

Unit 7: Passage Panning .Navigation: Use of Electronic Navigation Aids In order to provide an accurate terrestrial backup to satellite systems such as GPS. a more accurate Enhanced LORAN (eLORAN) system is under development in Europe.eLoran MGN 379 . Tests have shown that eLORAN will provide positional accuracy within the coverage area to the same level as GPS.

Coverage is good in North America. and the Pacific Rim. Unit 7: Passage Panning . (Northern Hemisphere) • Accurate to about 100m near base line • Hyperbolic navigation system • LORAN suffers from electronic effects of weather and in particular the ionosphere's reaction to sunrise and sunset. Europe.eLoran • Available in Northern hemisphere 24/7 when within 1000’ of an eLoran chain. • As with any radio navigation aid Magnetic storms have serious effects.

Eurofix • Is an integrated navigation and communication system – expanded from Loran-C. • Eurofix navigation works primarily with GPS to provide Differential corrections. • Limitations – User must be in an area where he can receive signals coming from Loran-C transmitters Unit 7: Passage Panning .

Eurofix covergage Unit 201: Management of Navigation .

de/en/gps/ Unit 7: Passage Panning • Dilution of Precision http://www.htm • CrossRate Tech Launches GPS + eLoran Marine Receiver • eLoran Sparks Debate In Washington – Is It Truly Important? http://gcaptain.gpsworld.Links to Resources • GPS system ‘close to breakdown’

Speed Logs • Electro-Magnetic Log • Only speed through the water • Used for sea stabilised display • Doppler log • Speed over the ground or speed through the water • SoG – ground stabilised • StW – sea stabilised • How accurate was the log on your last ship? Unit 7: Passage Panning .

North up or Course up – Requires compass heading input – Comparison with chart – No blurring with heads movement – Good bearing accuracy and CPA Unit 7: Passage Panning .Relative motion • Unstabilised. Head up – Looks like the view out of window – pilotage – Picture rotates as ship yaws – Occurs with single Compass failure • Stabilised.Radar / ARPA .

– Immediate indication of targets change of course Unit 7: Passage Panning .Radar / ARPA – True motion • Ground Stabilised – Indicates course & speed over ground – Pilotage/Navigation – Affected by strong tides • Sea Stabilised – Indicates ship motion through water.

Echo Sounder • Measures pulses of sound energy transmitted and reflected – Speed of sound in water • Does the signal travel faster in FW? – Comparison with chart depth • Limitations – Aeration & Turbulence – Sea ice or marine growth or paint on plate Unit 7: Passage Panning .

Unit 7: Passage Panning .

Availability. Accuracy & Errors System Availability Accuracy Celestial GNSS Radar eLoran Unit 7: Passage Panning Errors .

DR Index error (S) Chronometer (S) Refraction (R) Propagation (R) DIP (S) 24/7 US military or Russia Poorer in high latitudes Number of satellites +/.Availability.1 3cm short range definition 10cm long range scanning & rain clutter Range and bearing discrimination. PM & MP Polaris +/. Weather Wrong object North hemisphere 24/7 within 1000’ of chain +/. VRM.5 at 600’ (GW) and +/.20m or 100m 95% 2D v 3D fix Interference Jamming Ionosphere.0. cloud & weather. low coast. altitude. sun spots. GDOP Within 20’ of land +/.0.0.1 . Sun / Planet AM. blind Shadow sectors.1 to 2 1000’ (SW) Ionosphere Weather Surface effect Radar eLoran Accuracy Unit 7: Passage Panning . Gyro error. Accuracy & Errors System Celestial GNSS Availability Errors 5 x 24h – Stars AM & PM.2’ on base line decreasing to +/. Cumulonimbus Weather Rx clock (S) resolved in Rx Multipath.2 ‘ Less in high latitudes Dependant on good horizon.