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Digital Image Processing

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- Image

- Digital Image

Image:

- An image is a two-dimensional picture,

that has a similar appearance to some subject;

- A physical object or a person

- Two-dimensional images:

- A photograph

- A screen display

- A drawing/ painting

- Image can also be a three-dimensional, such as:

- A hologram

- Stereoscopic 3-D image

- 3D movie

Capturing Images :

- Optical devices:

- Cameras

- Lenses and mirrors

-Telescopes and Microscopes etc

- Natural objects and phenomena:

- The human eye or

- Water surfaces, Rain droplets

two-dimensional figures such as:

- Maps

- Graphs

- Pie charts

- Abstract Paintings

( Collection of still images taken at a fixed time interval of

more than 10 frames per second)

Digital Images

- Generally images are analog (Taken by a roll film cameras/ paintings)

- For computer processing these images have to be digitazed

- Digitized images:

- Images converted to digital image form by

- Digitizers/ Scanners

- Images acquired by digital cameras

- Produces digital images, directly

- Digital images are represented by pixels (Picture elements)

- A digital image is defined as

a two dimensional function f (x, y)

where x and y are spatial ( plane ) coordinates

f is amplitude of light intensity/ or grey level

at any pair of coordinates (x, y)

(Average value of the grey level or intensity of light

of the pixel area surrounding the point (x, y))

Sampling (discretization) and

(Taking samples of grey level, along x and y coordinates)

Quantization.

(Mapping of grey levels into a grey scale

(Grey scale is a set of predefined

grey scale values: i.e. 0 - 255)

- Digital image can also be computed from:

- A geometric model or

- Mathematical formula.

- This process of the image generation is

commonly known as:

- Image synthesis / or

- Image rendering

Human Vision

- Most advanced of our senses

- Plays most important role in Human perception

- Limited to only visible band of spectrum

( Electro magnetic spectrum)

Electromagnetic spectrum

Frequency (Hz)

Wavelength (Meters)

Visible Spectrum

400 nanometers to 700 nanometers

CD

DVD

Blue ray disc

Red laser

Blue laser

Electromagnetic waves

c

c = Speed of light 2.988 x 10 8 m/ s

= Wave length in meters

= frequency

PlanckEinstein equation:

E = h x

h is Plancks constant (6.582119281016 eV.s)

images can be related to entire Electro magnetic spectrum:

- Gamma Rays

- X-Rays

- Ultra violet rays

- Visible range

- Infra red

- Microwaves

- Radio waves

- Sound waves

Ultra sound

- Gamma Ray imaging

- Radio isotopes are injected in a patient

3 D Image is generated by gamma-ray detectors

- X-Ray imaging

- X-rays are generated by cathode ray tube

(By electrons emitted by cathode, striking anode)

- The transmission of the X-rays falling through the

patients body, depends upon the density of the bones.

- The transmitted X-rays create an image of the internal

organs on a photographic film.

- The X-ray image can also be directly converted to

digital image by using a phosphor screen

These rays falling on florescence material generate

red light

- Ultra violet rays can be used for studying materials

(Fluorescence)

- Visible range

Visible blue

0.45 to 0.52 (micro meter)

- Max. water penetration

Visible green

0.52 to 0.60

- Measuring vigor of plants

Visible red

- Infra red

Near infra red

0.63 to0.69

- Vegetation discrimination

mapping

Middle Infra red 1.55 to 1.75

Moisture contents of soil

/ Vegetation

Thermal Infra red 10.4 to 12.5

Soil Moisture/ Thermal

mapping

Night vision

- Microwaves

Radar

- Works in ambient light and in any weather

- Penetrates clouds

- See-through ice/ dry sand

- Radio waves

- Radio Astronomy

- MRI ( Magnetic Resonance Imaging )

- Sound waves

- Acoustics

100 of Hertz

- Geographical Exploration/ Oil exploration

Industry

- Ultrasonic

Million of Hertz

Pulse Echo

- Seismic images

- Medical applications

- Electron beams

Used in electron microscopy

10,000 x amplification

- Computer generated Images

- Synthetic images

Used for 3-D modeling and visualization

Virtual Reality

- Fractal Images

Fractals is iterative reproduction of basic pattern

according to some mathematical rule

X-ray images

Angiogram

Circuit board

CT scan: Head

Computed

tomography

Thumb

print

Paper currency

reading

Baby image

Ultra sonic

Fractal images

1. Improving the pictorial information for

Human interpretations

2. Processing of Image Data for:

a. Storage

(compression)

b. Transmission

(compression)

c. Representation and

d. Automatic machine perception

1. Image processing:

Operations on image to enhance particular feature

Image in image out

2. Image Analysis:

Understanding of image characteristics

Image in Measurement out

3. Computer vision:

To use computers to emulate human vision

- Recognizing objects in images

Being able to draw inferences, take actions

Image in High level description out

1. Low level

Primitive operations:

- Noise reduction,

- Contrast enhancement,

- Sharpening

In this processing both input and output are images

2. Mid level

Segmentation, Partitioning of an image, Integration etc,

with the objective of:

a. Description of objects in the image

Computer processing

b. Classification of objects

Recognition

3. High level

Making sense of image

Recognition of objects

- Performing cognitive functions

Vision

1. Image Acquisition

Scaling/ clipping/ rotating etc.

2. Image Enhancement

To bring out details that are obscured

To highlight certain features of interest

Image Enhancement is subjective

- Human subjective preferences

Regarding what constitute a good image

3. Image Restoration

- To improving the appearance of image

- Image improvement is objective

- In the sense that the image restoration techniques

are based on mathematical or probabilistic models

of image degradation

4. Colour Image processing

Gained importance after the use of images on Internet

Foundation for representation of images in various

degree of resolution

6. Compression

Reducing storage requirement and bandwidth requirement

7. Morphological processing

Extracting image components that are useful in

description/ representation of images

8. Segmentation

Partitioning image into its constituents/ objects

9. Image Representation

Description of image:

- Boundary/ Region

10 Image Recognition

Assignment of labels to various constituents of an image

- Light energy falling on sensors

- gets converted into voltage signals

- Digitizer/ ADC converts voltage signals to discrete, grey level values

Types of sensors:

- Single sensor:- One sensor for all pixels

A Mechanical system moves over all the parts of

a picture in front of the single sensor

- One sensor /pixel of a line of picture

- A mechanical system moves the strip of sensors

along the picture

- Optical system; lens/aperture and a shutter system

focuses entire picture on the sensor array

Array of Sensors:

Array of Sensors

located at image plane

Object

Continuous image

Sampling:

Quantization:

and quantization

Mapping intensity to a set of grey levels

Digitization of an Image

y

Pixel 0, 0

N = 16 columns

x

Value of intensity of light

or grey level

0 255 for 8-bit

Pixel coordinates

x = 3, y = 10

M = 16

rows

Digitization of an image

1. Place a grid on the image

2. Divide the image into picture elements (pixels)

3. Measure the average value of grey level at

Each grid element/ picture element ( pixel) and

Quantize the grey level value

(by mapping into the specified grey level scale)

Digital image is a function f (x, y)

where x = 0 to M-1 and y = 0 to N-1

f (x, y) is the value of pixel at (x, y), in integers (quantized)

(0 to 255 for 8-bit values)

Digital image

Y coordinate, 0 to N-1

X

coordinate

0 to M-1

Represents average value of light intensity in

one square area of a pixel at (x, y)

x, y coordinates

We can assume discrete values 0,1,2,3 for x and y coordinates

- Image starts from left top corner

- Intensity/ or grey level is quantized to grey scale 0 to L -1

- Values of gray scale at any coordinate (x, y) is f( x, y) :

y

f(0, N-1)

f(1, N-1)

| --------------------------------------|

|---------------------------------------|

f(M-1,0)

f(M-1, N-1)

- There are standard values for the various parameters encountered

in digital image processing

Parameter

Symbol

Typical values

Rows

Columns

Gray Levels

(Bits

L

B

1, 2, 4, 8,

10,

12,

14

16)

Generally:

M = N = 2B

where {B = 2, 4, 8, 10,12, 16}

L = 2 8 (8 bit, or 1 byte)

- Intensity of each colour component can be represented on 256 level

grey scale. (0 to 255)

- Thus each pixel of colour image will require 3 bytes ( 24 bits)

(as compared to 1 byte (8bits) for 256 level monochrome image)

One colour

image is

split into

three

grey scale

images

by using filters

- Elements of Visual Perception

- Eye is nearly spherical, Diameter 20 mm

- Three membranes enclose the eye

1. Cornea and Sclera

2. Choroid

3. Retina

1. Cornea and Sclera

Outer cover

- Cornea is tough, transparent tissue,

covers anterior (frontal) surface of the eye)

- Sclera is an opaque membrane that

encloses the remainder of the optic glove

2. Choroid

- Lies directly below the sclera

- It is a network of blood vessels

- Choroid serves as a source of nutrition to the eye

- It is heavily pigmented

Which helps reduce amount of

extraneous light entering the eye and also

reduces the back scatter within the optic glove

- At the anterior (front) extreme, the Choroid is divided into:

1. Ciliary body and

2. Iris

- Iris

- Iris contracts or expands to control the amount of light

that enters the eye

- The central opening of iris varies from 2 to 8 mm

- The front of the iris contains the visible pigment of eye

- - black/ brown pigment

- Lens

- Layers of fibrous cells

attached to the Ciliary body

(Cataracts - clouding of lens)

- Focal length of the lens 14 mm to 17 mm)

infrared and ultra violet rays appreciably

3. Retina

- Innermost membrane of eye

- lies inside of the walls posterior portion

- When the eye is focused,

light from the object outside the eye

is imaged on the retina

- A distribution of discrete light receptors over

the surface of retina sense the pattern of light

- There are two classes of receptors:

1. Cones and

2. Rods

:- Cones:

- About 6-7 million

- Primarily in central portion of retina

- Cones are sensitive to color

- Eye rotates till the image is focused on the cones area

- Eye resolves fine details of an image with the Cones,

- Cone vision is called: Photopic or Bright-light vision

- Rods:

- 70 -150 million, distributed over the backside of retina

- Rods gives general overall picture of fields of view

- Sensitive to overall intensity of light, not colours

- These are sensitive to low levels of illumination

- Rod vision is called:

2. Choroid

3. Retina

Lens Focal

Length 14 18 mm

Blind spot

1. Cornea (Outer

transparent cover)

Fovea

Visual axis

Iris diaphragm

2 - 8 mm

Central opening

Vitreous humor

Diameter = 20 mm

Ciliary muscle

Ciliary fibers

- Lens and the retina are fixed

- Focusing is done by varying focal length of the lens

from 14 18 mm

- Thinning the lens for focusing distant objects

- Thickening the lens for focusingnear objects

h / 17 = 15/100

h = 17 x 15/100 = 2.55 mm

32 x 32 pixel size

enlarged to same size)

same resolution of 452 x 374 pixels

452 x 374

pixels

256 level

image

128 level

image

64 level

image

32 level

16 level

image

8 level

image

4 level

image

2 level

image

1. Neighbor of a pixel

p (x, y)

In horizontal and vertical direction are:

(x+1, y), (x-1, y), (x, y +1), (x, y-1)

x -1

y -1

y +1

x +1

- Each pixel is unit distance from (x, y)

- If p is lying at border of an image, its neighboring pixels

may lie outside the digital image

The four Diagonal neighbors of pixel p (x, y)

(x+1, y+1), (x+1, y-1), (x-1, y +1), (x-1, y-1)

Diagonal neighbor pixels are Denoted by N d (p)

x-1, y-1

x+1, y+1

Here also some neighbor pixels may fall outside image at border

Adjacency

Let V be the set of intensity values, used to define adjacency

considered

- V can also be a subset of 256 values of levels ( 0 to 255 levels)

(say range of levels: 130 to 200)

1. 4-adjacency: Two pixels p and q are in 4-adjacency

with V value (subset of 0-256 values)

p

If q is in the set N 4 (p)

2. 8-adjacency:

Two pixels p and q are in 8-adjacency

with value V (subset of 0-256 values)

If q is in set N 8 (p)

p

3. Mixed adjacency

( m-adjacency )

Modification of 8 adjacency

Two pixels p and q are in m-adjacency

with value V (subset of 0-256 values) / or 1

1. If q is in set N4(p)

p

N4(p)

or

2. if q is in set Nd (p)

and

Nd(p)

q

p

q

p

has no pixels whose value from V / or 1

Pixels

in Intersection

arising out of multiple paths in 8-adjacency

It means diagonal adjacency is to be taken only if there is

no pixel is in set V / or 1, in vertical/ or horizontal location at N4(p)

8 - Adjacency

two paths

M - path

Intersection

pixel 1

q1

Intersection

pixel 0

in 8-Adjacency to the central pixel

q2

M-adjacency:

-A mixture of two, N4 and Nd adjacencies to

eliminate ambiguity of 8 -Adjacency

- If q is at diagonal point then none of the two pixels

across diagonal positions should be 1

- In diagonal path there should be no straight path

Since q1 is at diagonal and intersection of P4 and D4 is 1 so the diagonal path is

not possible

Since q2 is at diagonal and intersection of P4and D4 is 0 so the diagonal

path is possible

- A path from pixel p (x, y) to

pixel q (s, t)

is a sequence of distinct pixels with coordinates:

(x0,y0), (x1,y1) - - - - - - - to - - - (x n, y n),

where (x0, y0) = (x, y) (starting point) and

(x n, y n) = (s, t) (End point)

- Pixel (x i, y i) and (x

i-1

- In such case

- If

1in

the type of adjacency

Connected path in S

S

q

Connected pixels

- Let pixels p and q be two pixels in subset S

- Then pixel p and q are said to be connected

in a subset S of an image

if there exist a path between p and q

consisting of pixels, entirely from image subset S

Connected componant

- For any pixel p in S,

The set of pixels, that are connected to the pixel p in S,

is called a connected component of S

Connected set

- If it (S) has only one connected component

then set S is called connected set

Region

- Let R , a subset of pixels in an image,

R is called a region of the image

if it is is a connected set

Adjacent regions

- Two regions are said to be adjacent

if their union forms a connected set

- Adjacency can be 4 or 8

Disjoint regions

- Two regions that are not adjacent. (Having no 1s connected)

111

101

010

001

111

111

R i region

R j region

- Ri and Rj are adjacent, if 8-adjacency is considered

- Ri and Rj are disjoint, if 4-adjacency is considered

since 4-path does not exist, between Ri and Rj

- Boundary is a set of pixels in the region R

that have one or more neighbor pixels

that are not in the region R

- If R happens to be the entire image ( upto the end of the image)

( Rectangle set of pixels)

then the boundary is defined as the set of pixels in:

- the first and the last rows and

- the first and last columns of the image

- This extra definition is required as

there are no neighbor pixels beyond

the border of the image

- Normally, a region is a subset of an image,

any pixels of the region, at the edge of an image

Border

are included in the boundary

1111111

1111111

1111111

1111110

1111111

111110

1111111

11100

-Edge

Difference between the edge and the boundary:

- Boundary of a region forms a closed path

it is a global concept

of intensity levels, exceeding certain threshold

- The edge is a local concept,

based on intensity level discontinuity

- Edge need not form a closed boundary

- Edges can be considered as intensity discontinuities

Distance measure

z (v, w)

Two distances:

1. Euclidean distance

2. Block level distance

q (s, t)

p (x, y)

D is distance function or metric if:

a.

D (p, q) is positive 0

b.

D( p, q) = D ( q, p)

d.

D ( p, z) D( p, q) + D (q, z)

( D( p, q) = 0 if

D e = [ (x s) 2 + (y t) 2 ]1/2

For this distance measure,

the pixels having a distance some value r from (x, y)

are the points contained in a disk of radius r

p q)

r

x, y

q (s, t)

- D4 (p, q) = |(x s) | + | (y t)|

p (x, y)

- The pixels having a distance

D4 from (x, y) some value r

from a diamond centered at (x, y)

the center point

2

212

21012

212

2

The pixels with D 4 = 1 are the four neighbors of (x, y)

D8

D 8 distance from (x, y) some value r

from a square centered at (x, y)

For example , the pixels with D 8 distance 2 from the center (x, y)

22222

21112

21012

21112

22222

- Pixels with D 8 = 1 are the N8 (8 neighbors) of (x, y)

- D4 and D8 are distances between points p and q are

independent of any path that might exist between the points

- These distance involves only the coordinates of the points

- Dm distance between two points

is defined as the shortest m-path between the points

- In this case the distance between two pixels

will depend upon the values of the pixels along the path,

and the value of their neighbor pixels.

For example:

p1

p0

p3 p 4

p2

p3 p 4

p1 p 2

p0

(1)

1. If p3 and p1 are 0s

2. if only p1 = 0

3. if only p3 = 0

4. if p1 and p4 are 1

p1

p0

p3 p 4

p2

(2)

p1

p0

p3 p 4

p2

(3)

then

=3

then

=3

then

=4

p3 p4

p1 p2

p0

(4)

(p0, p2, p4)

(p0, p2, p3,p4)

(p0, p1, p2, p4)

(p0, p1, p2, p3, p4)

Determine

1. Euclidian distance

2 . City block distance

3. Chess board distance between p and q in the following subimage)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 p

p = (10, 1)

q = ( 2, 8)

(8 x 8 + 7 x 7) 1/2 = (113 ) 1/2

D 4 = 8 + 7 = 15

D 8 = max. of 8, 7 = 8

- An array operation involves one or more images

carried out on pixel by pixel basis

Array multiplication:

a11

a12

a21

a22

b11 b12

b21 b22

a11 x b11

a12 x b12

a21 x b21

a22 x b22

Matrix product:

a11

a12

b11 b12

a21

a22

b21 b22

a21 x b11 + a22 x b21

a21 x b12 + a22 x b22

array operations

f( x, y ) and g( x, y) are two images

These operations are carried out between corresponding pixels in images:

y

Sum s (x, y) = f ( x, y ) + g ( x, y)

N

Sub

d (x, y) = f ( x, y ) - g ( x, y)

Mult p (x, y) = f ( x, y ) x g ( x, y)

x

Div

v (x, y) = f ( x, y ) % g ( x, y)

M

(x is 0 1, 2, - - - M-1)

(y is 0 1, 2, - - - N-1)

s, d, p and v are images with M rows and N columns

Applications:

- Noise removal :

i=k

Average of g (x, y) = 1/ k

g i (x, y)

i =1

Where k is the number of images

- Astronomy:

- Low light levels images are totally noisy

- By adding multiple images noise can be reduced

5

10

Noisy image

20

50

100

Other images are result of averaging over 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 images

- Average of grey levels for each pixel in the images

- Enhancement of image by subtraction in radiography

- Shading correction by multiplication and division

- Finding region of interest (ROI) - - Masking

Scaling

-Images after arithmetic operations may go out of range of levels

(0 -255)

to < 0 or > 255

- First the minimum value of intensity in the image is brought to zero:

f m = f min (f)

(Intensity of every pixel Minimum intensity of pixels)

- Then scale image pixel intensities by

f s = K x ( f / max (f m )

where K is the maximum level of grey scale (255)

- Scaled value of any pixel = grey value of the pixel multiplied by

255/ maximum grey value of the pixels

in the image

- So that the intensity range of the image becomes 0 - 255

Image A

30 50

50 70

20 80

100 230

80 200

90 180

Image B

20 30

40 60

10 50

120 240

90 200

80 170

A+ B

50 80 220 470

90 130 170 400

30 100 160 350

Minimum intensity = 30

Scaled image A +B

12 29

35 58

00 41

110 255

82 215

75 186

by 255/440 (0.58)

20 50

60 100

00 70

190 440

140 370

130 320

pixel intensity

Maximum intensity = 440

Two images are subtracted then scaled to the intensity levels up to 255

- Image is obtained by taking difference of the two images

- Then it is scaled to the full range of grey values (0 to 255)

Original image

Image obtained

by setting the least

significant bit to 0

Image obtained

by scaling the image

to 0 to 255

Mask

Difference between

Mask and

Live image

Live image

Enhanced difference

image

Original Image

Shading pattern

Processed image

- Product of original image

and

reciprocal of shading pattern

Dental X-ray

Image

isolating teeth

for fillings

mask

Logical operations:

Binary images

1 valued pixels as foreground

0 valued pixels as background

Union of two binary images

OR

Complement of an image

NOT

Foreground = white pixels

Original mage

Original mage

operation

AND 1 1 = 1

0 0, 0 1, 1 0 = 0

OR image mask

Result of OR

OR 0 0 = 0

operation 1 1, 1 0, 0 1 = 1

End

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