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Rekayasa Radio

TTG4B3

SEMESTER GANJIL 2015 2016

Topology Planning
Network topology is based on
Traffic
Outage requirements
Most frequently used topologies
Star
Daisy Chain
Loop

Topology Planning
Chain/ Tandem or Daisy-Chain
Application: along roads
Advantages
Efficient use of link capacity (if BTSs are
chained to the same 2Mbps)
Low concentration of equipment at
nodal point

Disadvantages
Installation planning is essential as the
BTSs close
If the first link is lost, the traffic of the
whole BTS chain is lost
extended bandwidth (grooming)

Topology Planning
Star
Advantages
Easy to design
Independent paths which mean link failure affects only
one node
Easy to configure and install
Can be expanded easily

Disadvantages

Limited distance from BTS or hub to the BSC


Inefficient use of frequency band
Inefficient link capacity use as each BTS uses the 2 Mbps
High concentration of equipment at nodal point
Interference problem

Topology Planning
Tree
or
Star
Network
with
HUB
Application: Used for small or medium
size network
Advantages

Efficient equipment utilization by grooming


Short paths which require smaller antenna
Frequency reuse

Disadvantages

Availability , one link failure affect many sites


Expansions might require upgrading or
rearrangement

Topology Planning
Ring/Loop
BTSs are connected onto two way
multidrop chain
Advantages

Provide the most reliable means of transmission


protection against microwave link fading and
equipment failure
Flexibility y providing longer hops with the same
antenna size, or alternatively, smaller antenna
dishes with the same hop length

Disadvantages

Installation planning; since all BTSs of a loop


must be in place for loop protection
More difficult to design and add capacity
Skilled maintenance personnel is required to
make configuration changes in the loop

Network Topology and Frequency


Planning

Link Engineering Interference


Interference is caused due to
undesirable RF Signal Coupling
Threshold is degraded due to
interference
Degraded Threshold results in reduced
reliability

Link Engineering Interference


V
H

F1

Cross Polar Coupling


Solution : Use of High Performance Antenna

Link Engineering Interference


F2
F1
Adjacent Channel
Solution : Use Radio with better Specifications

Link Engineering Interference

T : Low
R : Hi

T : Hi
R : Low

T : Hi
R : Low

T : Low
R : Hi

Front to Back
Solution : Antenna with High FTB Ratio

Link Engineering Interference

T : Low
R : Hi

T : Hi
R : Low

T : Hi
R : Low

T : Low
R : Hi

T : Low
R : Hi

Over Reach
Solution : Choose Antenna Heights such a way
there is no LOS for over reach

T : Hi
R : Low

Network Routes & Route


Capacities

Inter- City routes - Backbone


Backbone routes are planned at Lower Frequency
Bands
2, 6 and 7 GHz Frequency Bands are used
Backbone routes are normally high capacity routes
Nominal Hop Distances 25 40 Km
Intra City routes - Access
Access routes are planned at Higher Frequency
Bands
15,18 and 23 GHz Frequency Bands are used
Nominal Hop Distance 1 10 Km

Network Routes & Route


Capacities

Note: the path lengths of fixed links operating above 10 GHz in


Hong Kong.