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INTRODUCTION

TO
SOCIOLOGY

OBJECTIVES
1. To provide an exciting and challenging
introduction to sociology by picking up material
from everyday life. The students will be introduced
to basic concepts of sociology;
2. To learning to think sociologically i.e. cultivating
sociological
imagination.
Interpreting
the
dynamics
of
varying
human
behavior
dispassionately in a wider context; and
3. To the applicability of sociological insights to
behavior of people operating in different work
situations.

Methodology
There will be 45 lectures each of 50
minutes duration.
The lectures will be delivered in
mixture of English and Urdu.
The lectures will be supported by
slides presentation where necessary.

Lecture 1
THE ORIGINS
OF
SOCIOLOGY

Sociology is the
scientific study of
human social life,
groups, and
societies.

No sociology as a
distinct discipline
before the advent of
th
19 century.

Three factors lead


to the development
of sociology

The first was the


industrial
revolution
The second factor that
stimulated the development
of sociology was imperialism.
The third impetus for the
development of sociology was
the success of the natural
sciences.

The First Factor


By the mid 19th century Europe was
changing from agriculture to factory
production. Emergence of new
occupations as well as new avenues of
employment away from the land.

Masses of people migrated to cities in


search of jobs. Pull and push factors .
People in these industrial cities
developed new ideas about
democracy and political rights.

By the mid 19 century


Europe was changing from
agriculture to factory
production. Emergence of new
occupations as well as new
avenues of employment away
from the land
th

Masses of people migrated


to cities in search of jobs.
Pull and push factors

People in these industrial


cities developed new ideas
about
democracy
and
political rights

Second Factor
Europeans successfully conquered
many parts of the world. They
were exposed to radically different
cultures.
Startled by these
contrasting ways of life, they
began to ask why cultures differed

Third Factor
People
moved
to
question
fundamental aspects of their social
world. They started using the
scientific method (systematic
observation, objectivity) to the
study of human behaviour

Auguste Comte
The idea of applying the scientific
method to the social world, known as
positivism, was apparently first
proposed by Auguste Comte (17981857)

Comte became interested


in the two interrelated
issues: social order (social
statics) and social change
(social dynamics).

What holds the society


together (Why is there
in a social order)?

What causes it to
change?

Comte concluded:
The right way to answer such questions
was to apply the scientific method to
social life.
There must be laws that underlie the
society.
Discover these principles by applying
scientific method to social world.
Apply these principles for social
reform

Science of Sociology
This will be a new science and
Comte named it as Sociology
(1838) the study of society.
Comte is credited with being
the founder of sociology

Other early pioneer names:


Herbert Spenser (1820-1903)
Englishman.
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
German.
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
French
Max Weber (1864-1920)
German.

Subject Matter
of
Sociology

The Fields of Sociology


Big diversity in fields of
interest.

Biosociology
Collective Behaviour/Social Movements
Community
Comparative Sociology//Macrosociology
Criminal Justice
Criminology/Delinquency
Cultural Sociology
Demography
Development/Modernization
Deviant Behaviour/Social Disorganization

Economy and Society


Education
Environmental Sociology
Ethnomethodology
History of Sociology/ Social Thought
Human Ecology
Industrial Sociology
International development/Third World
Law and Society
Leisure/Sports/Recreation
Marriage and the Family

Mass Communication/Public Opinion


Mathematical sociology
Medical Sociology
Methodology: Qualitative Approaches
Methodology: Quantitative Approaches
Microcomputing/Computer Applications
Military Sociology

Occupations/Professions
Penology/Corrections
Political Sociology
Race/Ethnic/Minority Relations
Religion
Rural Sociology
Small Groups
Social Change
Social Control
Social Networks
Social Organizations/formal/complex

Social Psychology
Socialization
Sociological Practice/Social Policy
Sociology of Aging/Social Gerontology
Sociology of Art/Literature
Sociology of Knowledge
Sociology of Language/Social Linguistics
Sociology of Markets
Sociology of Mental Health
Sociology of Science
Sociology of Sex and Gender

Sociology of Work
Sociology of World Conflict
Stratification/Mobility
Theory
Urban Sociology
Visual Sociology

Source: American Sociological association Guide to Graduate


departments, 1992 : 290-308.

The sociological
perspective helps us
recognize human
variety and confront
the challenges of
living in a diverse
world.