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8.

2 Cell
Respiration
Essential idea: Cell respiration
supplies energy for the
functions of life.

Energy in cells is all about the molecule shown,


Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). The energy is
held in the bonds between atoms, in particular
the high energy bond that joins the second and
third phosphates. ATP is the energy currency of
the cell. Hence the efficiency of respiration is By Chris Paine
measured by the yield of ATP.

https://bioknowledgy.weebly.com/

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/

Understandings, Applications and Skills


Statement
2.8.U1
2.8.U2
2.8.U3
2.8.U4
2.8.A1
2.8.A2
2.8.S1

Guidance

Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy Details of the metabolic pathways of cell
from organic compounds to produce ATP.
respiration are not needed but the substrates
and final waste products should be known.
ATP from cell respiration is immediately available
as a source of energy in the cell.
Anaerobic cell respiration gives a small yield of
ATP from glucose.
Aerobic cell respiration requires oxygen and gives
a large yield of ATP from glucose.
Use of anaerobic cell respiration in yeasts to
produce ethanol and carbon dioxide in baking.
Lactate production in humans when anaerobic
respiration is used to maximize the power of
muscle contractions.
Analysis of results from experiments involving
There are many simple respirometers which
measurement of respiration rates in germinating
could be used. Students are expected to know
seeds or invertebrates using a respirometer.
that an alkali is used to absorb CO2, so
reductions in volume are due to oxygen use.
Temperature should be kept constant to avoid
volume changes due to temperature
fluctuations.

2.8.U1 Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds to produce ATP.

2.8.U1 Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds to produce ATP.

2.8.U1 Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds to produce ATP.

2.8.U1 Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds to produce ATP.

2.8.U1 Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds to produce ATP.

2.8.U2 ATP from cell respiration is immediately available as a source of energy in the cell.

2.8.U2 ATP from cell respiration is immediately available as a source of energy in the cell.

2.8.U2 ATP from cell respiration is immediately available as a source of energy in the cell.

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2.8.U1 Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds to produce ATP.

This links to 2.5 Enzymes and 8.1 Metabolism (AHL)

2.8.U4 Aerobic cell respiration requires oxygen and gives a large yield of ATP from glucose.

2.8.S1 Analysis of results from experiments involving measurement of respiration rates in germinating seeds or invertebrates using a
respirometer.

The diagram shows the design of a typical


respirometer. They vary greatly in their
design, but all can be used to calculate the
rate of respiration by measuring the
consumption of oxygen.

http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/sites/default/files/PB_measuring-rate-of-metabolism-respiro

2.8.S1 Analysis of results from experiments involving measurement of respiration rates in germinating seeds or invertebrates using a
respirometer.

The diagram shows the design of a typical


respirometer. They vary greatly in their
design, but all can be used to calculate the
rate of respiration by measuring the
consumption of oxygen.

ow the
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http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/sites/default/files/PB_measuring-rate-of-metabolism-respiro

2.8.S1 Analysis of results from experiments involving measurement of respiration rates in germinating seeds or invertebrates using a
respirometer.

The diagram shows the design of a typical


respirometer. They vary greatly in their
design, but all can be used to calculate the
rate of respiration by measuring the
consumption of oxygen.
Aerobic respiration uses 6 molecules of gas
(oxygen) and creates 6 molecules of gas (carbon
Filter paper
dioxide)
= no change
but
carbon
dioxideinisvolume,
absorbed
wicks
Increase the
therefore the volume of gas in the
Respiring
efficiency of
respirometer decreases.
organism
carbon dioxide
absorption

Potassium
hydroxide
(alkali)
solution

Suitable
living
organism
will respire
aerobically

Hydroxide
solutions are
used to
absorb carbon
dioxide in the http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/sites/default/files/PB_measuring-rate-of-metabolism-respiro

2.8.S1 Analysis of results from experiments involving measurement of respiration rates in germinating seeds or invertebrates using a
respirometer.

The diagram shows the design of a typical


respirometer. They vary greatly in their
design, but all can be used to calculate the
rate of respiration by measuring the
consumption of oxygen.
Capillary tube
containing coloured
oil
Movement in the oil per
minute toward tube B
measures the rate of
oxygen consumption. If
the diameter of the
capillary tube is known
then a volume can be
calculated

Syringe
Used to reset the
position of the coloured
oil

Rubber bungs seal


tubes
Closes the system to
prevent changes in air
volume
not due to
Metal cage
respiration
Keeps the organism in
place and away from
contact with the
hydroxide solution.

http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/sites/default/files/PB_measuring-rate-of-metabolism-respiro

2.8.S1 Analysis of results from experiments involving measurement of respiration rates in germinating seeds or invertebrates using a
respirometer.

The diagram shows the design of a typical


respirometer. They vary greatly in their
design, but all can be used to calculate the
rate of respiration by measuring the
consumption of oxygen.
Hoffman clip
Seals the
respirometer
and can be
opened to
reset it after
the volume
has been
reduced by
oxygen
consumption.

Temperatur
e controlled
The
respirometer
is immersed
in a water
bath to
prevent
temperature
affecting the
pressure and
hence
volume of air
in the
apparatus.

n.b. due to gas expansion


the Hoffman clip should be
left open until the
respirometer is at the
desired temperature if not
an explosion can
result.
http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/sites/default/files/PB_measuring-rate-of-metabolism-respiro

2.8.S1 Analysis of results from experiments involving measurement of respiration rates in germinating seeds or invertebrates using a
respirometer.

The diagram shows the design of a typical


respirometer. They vary greatly in their
design, but all can be used to calculate the
rate of respiration by measuring the
consumption of oxygen.

Tube A
Acts as a
control to
ensure that
changes in
the level of
coloured oil
are due to
respiration,
not the
reaction of
the akali
with
atmospheric
gases other
than carbon
dioxide.

http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/sites/default/files/PB_measuring-rate-of-metabolism-respiro

Nature of Science: assessing the ethics of scientific research - the use of invertebrates in respirometer experiments has ethical
implications. (4.5)

The diagram shows the design of a typical


respirometer. They vary greatly in their
design, but all can be used to calculate the
rate of respiration by measuring the
consumption of oxygen.
Respiring organism: If using invertebrates
rather than seeds what are the ethical
questions that need answering?

http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/sites/default/files/PB_measuring-rate-of-metabolism-respiro

Nature of Science: assessing the ethics of scientific research - the use of invertebrates in respirometer experiments has ethical
implications. (4.5)

The diagram shows the design of a typical


respirometer. They vary greatly in their
design, but all can be used to calculate the
rate of respiration by measuring the
consumption of oxygen.
Respiring organism: If using invertebrates
rather than seeds what are the ethical
questions
that need
Is it acceptable
to answering?
remove animals from their natural habitat for use in
an experiment?
Can the animals be safely returned to their habitat?
Will the animals suffer pain or any other harm during the
experiment?
Can the risk of accidents that cause pain or suffering to the animals be
minimized during the experiment? In particular, can contact with the
alkali be prevented?
Is the use of animals in the experiment essential or is there an
alternative method that avoids using animals?

http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/sites/default/files/PB_measuring-rate-of-metabolism-respiro

2.8.S1 Analysis of results from experiments involving measurement of respiration rates in germinating seeds or invertebrates using a
respirometer.

The diagram shows the design of a typical


respirometer. They vary greatly in their
design, but all can be used to calculate the
rate of respiration by measuring the
consumption of oxygen.
You should aim to carry out your own investigation
In the absence of equipment you can use the worksheet (Q1-10) with the
virtual lab:
http://biologycorner.com/worksheets/cellular_respiration_AP_Lab5_virtual.html

http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/sites/default/files/PB_measuring-rate-of-metabolism-respiro

2.8.U3 Anaerobic cell respiration gives a small yield of ATP from glucose.

2.8.U3 Anaerobic cell respiration gives a small yield of ATP from glucose.

2.8.A1 Use of anaerobic cell respiration in yeasts to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide in baking.

Bread is made by adding water to flour, kneading the mixture to


make dough and then baking it. Usually an ingredient is added to the
dough to create bubbles of gas, so that the baked bread has a lighter
texture (e.g. yeast).
After kneading (mixing) the dough
is kept warm to encourage the
yeast to respire.
Yeast can respire aerobically or anaerobically, but oxygen in
the dough is soon used up so the yeast is forced to respire
anaerobically.
The carbon dioxide produced by anaerobic cell
respiration cannot escape from the dough and forms
bubbles causing the dough to swell and rise.
Ethanol is also produced by
anaerobic cell respiration, but it
evaporates during baking.
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/

2.8.A1 Use of anaerobic cell respiration in yeasts to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide in baking.

Bioethanol (ethanol produced by


organisms) is a renewable energy
source.
Most bioethanol is produced from
sugar cane and maize, using yeast.
Starch and cellulose in the plant
material are broken down by
enzymes into sugars.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ethanol_plant.jpg

Fermenters are used to keep the yeast in optimum


conditions.
When yeast carry out anaerobic
respiration the sugars in the plant
material are converted to ethanol
and carbon dioxide.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Saab_93_SportCombi_1.8t_BioPower_Facelift_rear.JPG

The ethanol produced by the


yeasts is purified by distillation
and water is removed to
improve combustion.
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cornfield_in_South_Africa2.

2.8.A2 Lactate production in humans when anaerobic respiration is used to maximize the power of muscle contractions.

Certain human activities require anaerobic


respiration such as weightlifting and
sprinting.
Aerobic respiration generates a much
greater yield of ATP, but anaerobic
respiration can supply ATP very
rapidly, as oxygen is not required.
Rapid generation of ATP enables us
to maximise the power of muscle
contractions.
Anaerobic cell respiration produces lactate. There
is a limit to the concentration that the body can
tolerate and this limits how much or how long
anaerobic respiration can be done for.
Afterwards lactate must be broken down. This involves
the use of oxygen. It can take several minutes for enough
oxygen to be absorbed for all lactate to be broken down.
The demand for oxygen that builds up during a period of
anaerobic respiration is called the oxygen debt.
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/

Bibliography /
Acknowledgments

Jason de
Nys