You are on page 1of 27

INTRODUCTION

"Consumer behaviour may be defined as the behaviour


that consumers display in searching for, purchasing
suing, evaluating and disposing of produces, services
and ideas which they expect will satisfy their needs."

- SCHIFFMAN & KANUK

Characteristics Of Buyer
Behaviour
Comprises both mental and physical activity of consumer.
Buyer behaviour is a integral part of human behaviour
Buyer behaviour is the process by which individuals

decide whether, what, when, from whom, where and how


to buy.
Buyer behaviour is very dynamic and complex
In many cases, it is the sum total of the behaviour of a
number of persons
It is influenced by internal factors such as needs, habit,
attitudes etc.. And external factors like family, social
group, culture etc
Consumer behaviour starts before buying and goes even
after buying

NEED OR IMPORTANCE OF STUDY OF


CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
It is important for the marketers to understand the
buyer behaviour due to the following reasons:
It helps in formulating effective marketing strategy.
It

gives information regarding colour, design, and


other features that a consumer want in his product.
Thus it helps in formulating production policy.

It is important for framing suitable pricing policies.


Consumers demand more for quality products at

reasonable prices. Marketers should first study the


needs of consumers and then try to satisfy them.

NEED OR IMPORTANCE OF STUDY OF


CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
Rapid technological advancement compels the

marketers to study consumer behaviour.


Understanding of consumer behaviour helps avoid
or minimise market failures.
For effective market segmentation and target
marketing, it is essential to have an
understanding of consumer and their behaviour.

Types Of Consumer Buying Behaviour


Complex buying behaviour

Eg: cars, homes, computers, education etc.


Dissonance reducing buying behaviour- Cognitive

Dissonance
Eg: Mobile phone
Variety seeking buying behaviour

Eg: Soap, Detergent, tooth paste etc..


Habitual buying behaviour

Eg: Salt, Matches, Oil etc..

Stages Of The Consumer Buying


Process

The Buyer Decision Process


Step 1. Need Recognition
Need
Need Recognition
Recognition

Difference
Differencebetween
betweenan
an actual
actualstate
stateand
andaadesired
desiredstate
state

Stimuli
Stimuli

External
External Stimuli
Stimuli

Hunger
Hunger

TV
TVadvertising
advertising

Thirst
Thirst

Magazine
Magazinead
ad

AApersons
personsnormal
normal
needs
needs

Radio
Radioslogan
slogan
Stimuli
Stimuliin
inthe
the
environment
environment

The Buyer Decision Process


Step 2. Information Search
Personal
Personal Sources
Sources

Family, friends, neighbors


Most influential source of
information

Commercial
Commercial Sources
Sources

Advertising, salespeople
Receives most information
from these sources
Mass Media
Consumer-rating groups
Handling the product
Examining the product
Using the product

Public
Public Sources
Sources
Experiential
Experiential Sources
Sources

The Buyer Decision Process


Step 3. Evaluation of Alternatives
Product
ProductAttributes
Attributes

Evaluation
Evaluationof
ofQuality,
Quality,Price,
Price,&&Features
Features

Degree
Degreeof
ofImportance
Importance

Which
Whichattributes
attributesmatter
mattermost
mostto
tome?
me?

Brand
BrandBeliefs
Beliefs

What
Whatdo
doIIbelieve
believeabout
abouteach
eachavailable
availablebrand?
brand?

Total
TotalProduct
ProductSatisfaction
Satisfaction

Based
Basedon
onwhat
whatIm
Imlooking
lookingfor,
for,how
howsatisfied
satisfied
would
wouldIIbe
bewith
witheach
eachproduct?
product?

Evaluation
EvaluationProcedures
Procedures

Choosing
Choosingaaproduct
product(and
(andbrand)
brand)based
basedon
onone
one
or
more
attributes.
or more attributes.

The Buyer Decision Process


Step 4. Purchase Decision
Purchase Intention
Desire to buy the most preferred brand

Attitudes
of others

Unexpected
situational
factors

Purchase Decision

The Buyer Decision Process


Step 5. Postpurchase Behavior
Consumers Expectations of
Products Performance
Products Perceived
Performance

Satisfied
Satisfied
Customer!
Customer!

Dissatisfied
Dissatisfied
Customer
Customer

Cognitive Dissonance

Model of Consumer Behavior


Product

Economic

Price

Technological

Promotion

Buyers
Decision
Process

Marketing
Marketing and
and
Other
Other Stimuli
Stimuli

Place

Buyer

s Bla
ck Bo
x

Product Choice
Dealer Choice

Buyers
Buyers Response
Response

Brand Choice

Political
Cultural

Characteristics
Affecting
Consumer
Behavior

Purchase
Timing
Purchase
Amount

Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior

CULTURAL FACTORS
Culture
Sub Culture
Social Class

SUB CULTURE
Religion
Geographical location
Gender (male/female)

SOCIAL CLASS

SOCIAL FACTORS
Reference Groups
Family Members
Relatives
Role in the Society
Status in the society

Table showing a traditional family life cycle

STAGE

Bachelorhood
Newly married couples

Full nest stage I

Full nest stage II

Full nest stage III


Empty nest I stage

Solitary stage

CHARACTERISTICS
Young people not living
at home
Young couples without
children

BUYING PATTERN
Fashionable
and
recreation goods
Fashionable and leisure
articles,
furnishings,
utensils
Begins with the birth of Childs clothes, food
the first child in the and medical expenses
family
Youngest child is at Childs toys to bicycles
least six years old
and
education
of
children
Teen aged or college Educational expenses
going children
Older married couples Travel
or
home
without any dependent improvement
children
living
with Medical expenses
them
Death of a life partner Special
needs
for

PERSONAL FACTORS

Occupation
Age
Economic Condition
Lifestyle
Personality

PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS
Perception
Learning
Beliefs and Attitude
Motivation

Two of the best - known theories of motivation


areAbraham Maslow
Frederick Herzberg

Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs


Dfdsf
Dfdsf

HERZBERGS THEORY
Frederick Herzberg developed a two factor theory
that distinguishes dissatisfiers (factors that cause
dissatisfaction) from satisfiers (factors that cause
satisfaction). The absence of dissatisfiers is not
enough to motivate a purchase; satisfier must be
present .
Example- A computer that does not come with a
warranty would be a dissatisfier. Yet the presence of
a product warranty would not act as a satisfier or
motivator of a purchase, because it is not a source of
intrinsic satisfaction. Ease of use would be a satisfier.

TOOLS TO STUDY COSUMER


BEHAVIOUR
Surveys
Projective Techniques
Focus Group

Discussions

CONCLUSION
As customer is the king, it is very important for every
organisation to understand the needs and wants of
their consumer and try to satisfy them. For this the
study of consumer behaviour is very essential.
Consumer Delight:
when the actual product performance exceeds the
buyers expectations, consumer will be highly
satisfied . So excess of actual product performance
over the expectation is called consumer delight.
Today consumer delight has therefore become a buzz
word.

THANK YOU