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What is the difference between a cell

and battery?

A cell is the basic voltage and current source

Dry cell, used in torches, flash lights, etc,.
A battery is a group of cells
6, 12 V storage Batteries

They serves as a backup source of DC (Direct

Cells and batteries convert chemical energy into
electric energy

Basic Electric Cell

The cell is made up of two electrodes in a liquid solution
called the electrolyte.
The electrolyte is a weak solution of acid, base, or salt in
By chemical action, it breaks down into particles called ions,
which are groups of atoms.
Ions have too many Electrons and so are negatively
Ions have too few electrons and are positively charged

Basic Electric Cell

The negative ions and the positive ions float in the
By chemical reaction, the positive ions are attracted to one
electrode and the negative ions to the other.
The ions combine, or react chemically, with the electrode
substance and also deposit their charges on the electrodes.
As the one electrode takes on an excess of electrons, it
becomes negatively charged
And as the other electrode losses electrons, it becomes
positively charged

Basic Electric Cell

With one electrode negatively charged and the other
electrode positively charged, a voltage, or difference of
potential, exists across the electrodes.
Since electrons are negatively charged, current flows out of
the cell from the negative electrode, through the load, to the
positive electrode.

Primary Cells
Not all cells can be recharged:
Some cells use up their materials to the point where
recharging is not practical.
Such cells are called Primary cells.

Secondary Cells
Cells which can be recharged are called Secondary cells or
storage cells.
The electrodes and the electrolyte in these cells can be
recharged or restored to their original, chemically active state.
These type of batteries are
Lead acid
Nickel iron
Nickel cadmium
Lead calcium
and Mercury batteries

Dry Cell

A dry cell uses an electrolyte which is in paste form.


Wet Cell
In wet cells each electrode consists of a group / set of


Wet Cell
They are set into an electrolyte.


Method of Connecting Cells




Sealed or Maintenance Free Batteries

These Batteries have no filler caps or plugs.
They are completely sealed except for a small vent hole.
The sealed battery is a lead-acid storage battery.
A special chemical solution inside the battery causes only a
very small amount of gas to be produced at normal charging
Also the special materials in the plates give the battery
exceptional ability to withstand any overcharging.
Overcharging causes loss of water.
Because the battery is sealed, the water does not
For maintenance, the sealed battery requires only cleaning 14
and recharging.

Storage Battery Care and Maintenance

Keep the electrolyte at the recommended level.
If the level is low add just enough distilled water to bring the
electrolyte to the proper level.
Clean the top of the battery and keep it free of dirt and
corrosion from spilled electrolyte.
This will prevent leakage and a slowly discharging battery.
A dilute solution of water and ammonia or baking soda is
commonly used for cleaning.
While cleaning, keep the filler cap on tight to prevent the
cleaning solution from entering the battery: also plug the

Storage Battery Care and Maintenance

Never hammer or use extra force on a battery terminal or
A battery is tested to see whether it
is good and stable
Requires recharging
Should be replaced

Among these are the specific gravity test

Light load test
High rate discharge test
Full charge hydrometer test


Specific Gravity test

The specific gravity of a substance is a measure of how
much a certain volume of that substance weighs in
comparison to the same volume of water.
For an example the specific gravity of water is unity or 1.00.
Concentrated sulfuric acid weighs 1.835 times as much as
the same volume of water.
Thus the specific gravity of the acid is 1.835


Specific Gravity test

Wear a safety shield or goggles when working around
Keep it away from your eyes, your skin, and your cloths.


Light-Load and High-Rate Discharge Test

A specific gravity test will show how much a battery is
charged or discharged.
But you can only find out about the condition and capacity of
a battery by making electrical test.
Open circuit test is one such test.
It may indicate that the battery can produce its rated voltage,
but when the current is being drawn off, the voltage
The capacity of a storage battery is usually stated in

Light-Load and High-Rate Discharge Test

An ampere-hour is a current of one ampere maintained for
one hour.
Light-load test, shows each cells ability to produce voltage
under a light load.
An Instrument used for this test is the cell analyzer. Another
is the cadmium-tip tester.
High-rate discharge test, is made by placing a heavy load on
the battery and measuring the battery terminal voltage after
15 seconds of discharge.
For high-rate discharge test, connect a variable resistor in a
circuit with a voltmeter and an ammeter.

Full-Charge Hydrometer Test

A full-charge hydrometer test is used only on batteries
which test out good with testing equipment or with the
specific gravity cell comparison test which later fail in
service .


Full-Charge Hydrometer Test

Remove the battery from service
Adjust the electrolyte level as necessary by adding distilled
Fully charge the battery at a slow charging rate.
Measure the specific gravity of the electrolyte in each cell.
Full-charge hydrometer readings less than 1.230 mean that
the battery is defective and should be replaced.


Re charging Batteries
When a battery delivers current to its load, the voltage at
the battery decreases.
This is due to the chemical change in the material in side
the battery.
So if the battery continues in use, after a while it wont be
able to produce any electric current.
At that point, the battery is discharged.
Restoring the battery to its original, or maximum, current
producing ability is called recharging the battery.


Re charging Batteries
When the battery is recharged, it will at first accept a high
rate of charge.
This will taper off as the battery reaches a fully charged
Thus in recharging the battery, reverse the current flow
through the battery to realign its chemical elements.


Re charging Rates
Methods of recharging batteries are
Slow charge and
Fast charge

The difference between the two is in the amount of time

needed for charging
The methods differ also in the charging current supplied to
the battery.
The slow charge method requires less amperage (rate of
current flow) than the fast charge method.


Re charging Rates
You should take certain precautions both before and during
the charging operation.
By doing this you will prevent battery damage and injury to
anyone who is recharging the batteries.
Before you recharge any battery, check the cells and add
water, If necessary to bring the electrolyte to the proper level.
During charging, the temperature of the electrolyte should
never go beyond 1250F or 520C


Re charging Rates
Hydrogen and Oxygen gases form an explosive mixture
under the cell covers while a storage battery is being
As the gaseous mixture escapes through the vents, normal
air circulation usually removes the danger of an explosion.
But if the air circulation is poor, or if the battery is being
heavily charged, the explosive mixture may accumulate near
the top of the battery.
A spark or flame can ignite this gaseous mixture and cause
a battery explosion.

Re charging Rates
Removing or connecting battery cables while the battery is
on charge or discharge can cause a dangerous spark.
Avoid smoking in Battery rooms.


General Storage Battery Maintenance Rules

.Keep all external parts of the battery as clean and dry as
Keep vent plugs tightly in place at all times, except when
adding water or taking hydrometer or thermometer readings
Add distilled water to each cells before the electrolyte level
drops to the low level, Do not overfill.
Avoid overcharging, which may result in excessive formation
of gas or high electrolyte temperature.
Avoid over discharging, that is, discharging more than the
rated ampere-hours

General Storage Battery Maintenance Rules

. Never add acid unless recommended by the manufacturer
Never bring a lighted match or other open flame near a
Maintain good ventilation of the battery room, area, or
compartment, to prevent explosive gas mixture from building
up and to keep down the electrolyte temperature
Keep proper records
Keep the battery connections clean and tight
Keep tools off the top of the battery


General Storage Battery Maintenance Rules

. Remember that the battery electrolyte is deadly to the eys
and can seriously burn your skin
If you should get the electrolyte on your skin, go to your first
aid station for immediate attention
If that is not possible, wash with baking soda and flush with
quantities of cold water
If you get acid in your eyes, flush with plenty of clean water
and get to a doctor as quickly as you can
Never use baking soda in your eyes