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- Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
- How to Use the Likert Scale in Statistical Analysis
- Statistics Reviewer 1
- For Immediate Release Wednesday, January 27, 2010
- Statistics
- sln12
- resjuly10
- Lesson Plan - Mr
- Introduction to Biostatistics
- Marketing Plan
- SQAT(software quality assurance and testing)
- Basic Statistics for Counselling _ EDG 1503V2
- M.com. Syllabus Delhi
- Commerce Dept. - March 18, 2014
- Basic Marketing Research V3
- Decision Making
- hello-L-1.ppt
- ch01
- Data Analysis - Data Types.pptx
- Chap1

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Chapter Goals

Create an initial image of the field of

statistics.

Introduce several basic vocabulary words

used in studying statistics: population,

variable, statistic.

Learn how to obtain sample data.

What is statistics?

a branch of mathematics that provides techniques to

analyze whether or not your data is significant

(meaningful)

Statistical applications are based on probability

statements

Nothing is proved with statistics

Statistics are reported

Statistics report the probability that similar results

would occur if you repeated the experiment

Statistics: The science of collecting, describing,

and interpreting data.

Two areas of statistics:

Descriptive Statistics: collection, presentation,

and description of sample data.

Inferential Statistics: making decisions and

drawing conclusions about populations.

scores of high school seniors across the country. Which of

the following statements are descriptive in nature and which

are inferential.

The mean math SAT score was 492.

The mean verbal SAT score was 475.

Students in the Northeast scored higher in math but lower in

verbal.

80% of all students taking the exam were headed for

college.

32% of the students scored above 610 on the verbal SAT.

The math SAT scores are higher than they were 10 years

ago.

Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics are methods for

organizing and summarizing data.

For example, tables or graphs are used to

organize data, and descriptive values such as

the average score are used to summarize data.

A descriptive value for a population is called a

parameter and a descriptive value for a

sample is called a statistic.

6

Inferential Statistics

Inferential statistics are methods for using

sample data to make general conclusions

(inferences) about populations.

Because a sample is typically only a part of the

whole population, sample data provide only

limited information about the population. As a

result, sample statistics are generally imperfect

representatives of the corresponding population

parameters.

7

Sampling Error

The discrepancy between a sample statistic

and its population parameter is called

sampling error.

Defining and measuring sampling error is a

large part of inferential statistics.

Population: A collection, or set, of

individuals or objects or events whose

properties are to be analyzed.

Two kinds of populations: finite or infinite.

Sample: A subset of the population.

Population includes all members of a group

Example: all 9th grade students in America

Number of 9th grade students at SR

No absolute number

Sample

Used to make inferences about large populations

Samples are a selection of the population

Example: 6th period Accelerated Biology

Why the need for statistics?

Statistics are used to describe sample populations as estimators of

the corresponding population

Many times, finding complete information about a population is

costly and time consuming. We can use samples to represent a

population.

Bias

Individuals in a sample population

Must be a fair representation of the entire pop.

Therefore sample members must be randomly

selected (to avoid bias)

Example: if you were looking at strength in

students: picking students from the football

team would NOT be random

Is there bias?

A cage has 1000 rats, you pick the first 20 you can catch for

your experiment

A public opinion poll is conducted using the telephone

directory

You are conducting a study of a new diabetes drug; you

advertise for participants in the newspaper and TV

All are biased: Rats-you grab the slower rats. Telephone-you

call only people with a phone (wealth?) and people who are

listed (responsible?). Newspaper/TV-you reach only people

with newspaper (wealth/educated?) and TV( wealth?).

population or sample.

Data (singular): The value of the variable associated with one

element of a population or sample. This value may be a

number, a word, or a symbol.

Data (plural): The set of values collected for the variable from

each of the elements belonging to the sample.

Experiment: A planned activity whose results yield a set of

data.

Parameter: A numerical value summarizing all the data of an

entire population.

Statistic: A numerical value summarizing the sample data.

Measuring Variables

To establish relationships between variables,

researchers must observe the variables and

record their observations. This requires that

the variables be measured.

The process of measuring a variable requires a

set of categories called a scale of

measurement and a process that classifies

each individual into one category.

15

1. A nominal scale is an unordered set of

categories identified only by name.

Nominal measurements only permit you to

determine whether two individuals are the

same or different.

2. An ordinal scale is an ordered set of

categories. Ordinal measurements tell you

the direction of difference between two

individuals.

16

3. An interval scale is an ordered series of equal-sized

categories. Interval measurements identify the

direction and magnitude of a difference. The zero

point is located arbitrarily on an interval scale.

4. A ratio scale is an interval scale where a value of

zero indicates none of the variable. Ratio

measurements identify the direction and magnitude

of differences and allow ratio comparisons of

measurements.

17

faculty. Identify the basic terms in this situation.

The population is the age of all faculty members at the college.

A sample is any subset of that population. For example, we might select

10 faculty members and determine their age.

The variable is the age of each faculty member.

One data would be the age of a specific faculty member.

The data would be the set of values in the sample.

The experiment would be the method used to select the ages forming the

sample and determining the actual age of each faculty member in the

sample.

The parameter of interest is the average age of all faculty at the college.

The statistic is the average age for all faculty in the sample.

Qualitative, or Attribute, or Categorical, Variable:

A variable that categorizes or describes an element of

a population.

Note: Arithmetic operations, such as addition and

averaging, are not meaningful for data resulting from

a qualitative variable.

Quantitative, or Numerical, Variable: A variable

that quantifies an element of a population.

Note: Arithmetic operations such as addition and

averaging, are meaningful for data resulting from a

quantitative variable.

(qualitative) or numerical (quantitative) variables.

1. The residence hall for each student in a statistics class.

(Attribute)

2. The amount of gasoline pumped by the next 10 customers at

the local Unimart. (Numerical)

3. The amount of radon in the basement of each of 25 homes in a

new development. (Numerical)

4. The color of the baseball cap worn by each of 20 students.

(Attribute)

5. The length of time to complete a mathematics homework

assignment. (Numerical)

6. The state in which each truck is registered when stopped and

inspected at a weigh station. (Attribute)

subdivided:

Nominal

Qualitative

Ordinal

Variable

Discrete

Quantitative

Continuous

describes, or names) an element of a population.

Ordinal Variable: A qualitative variable that incorporates an

ordered position, or ranking.

Discrete Variable: A quantitative variable that can assume a

countable number of values. Intuitively, a discrete variable can

assume values corresponding to isolated points along a line

interval. That is, there is a gap between any two values.

Continuous Variable: A quantitative variable that can assume

an uncountable number of values. Intuitively, a continuous

variable can assume any value along a line interval, including

every possible value between any two values.

Note:

1. In many cases, a discrete and continuous variable may

be distinguished by determining whether the variables

are related to a count or a measurement.

2. Discrete variables are usually associated with counting.

If the variable cannot be further subdivided, it is a clue

that you are probably dealing with a discrete variable.

3. Continuous variables are usually associated with

measurements. The values of discrete variables are only

limited by your ability to measure them.

qualitative or numerical variables:

1. The temperature in Barrow, Alaska at 12:00 pm on any

given day.

2. The make of automobile driven by each faculty member.

3. Whether or not a 6 volt lantern battery is defective.

4. The weight of a lead pencil.

5. The length of time billed for a long distance telephone call.

6. The brand of cereal children eat for breakfast.

7. The type of book taken out of the library by an adult.

nominal, (2) ordinal, (3) discrete, or (4) continuous variables:

1. The length of time until a pain reliever begins to work.

2. The number of chocolate chips in a cookie.

3. The number of colors used in a statistics textbook.

4. The brand of refrigerator in a home.

5. The overall satisfaction rating of a new car.

6. The number of files on a computers hard disk.

7. The pH level of the water in a swimming pool.

8. The number of staples in a stapler.

No matter what the response variable: there

will always be variability in the data.

One of the primary objectives of statistics:

measuring and characterizing variability.

Controlling (or reducing) variability in a

manufacturing process: statistical process

control.

How much soda does each can really contain?

It is very unlikely any one can contains exactly 12 ounces

of soda.

There is variability in any process.

Some cans contain a little more than 12 ounces, and some

cans contain a little less.

On the average, there are 12 ounces in each can.

The supplier hopes there is little variability in the process,

that most cans contain close to 12 ounces of soda.

Data

The measurements obtained in a research

study are called the data.

The goal of statistics is to help researchers

organize and interpret the data.

28

Notation

The individual measurements or scores obtained for

a research participant will be identified by the letter

X (or X and Y if there are multiple scores for each

individual).

The number of scores in a data set will be identified

by N for a population or n for a sample.

Summing a set of values is a common operation in

statistics and has its own notation. The Greek letter

sigma, , will be used to stand for "the sum of."

For example, X identifies the sum of the scores.

30

Order of Operations

1. All calculations within parentheses are done first.

2. Squaring or raising to other exponents is done

second.

3. Multiplying, and dividing are done third, and

should be completed in order from left to right.

4. Summation with the notation is done next.

5. Any additional adding and subtracting is done last

and should be completed in order from left to

right.

31

Experiment: The investigator controls or modifies the

environment and observes the effect on the variable under

study.

Survey: Data are obtained by sampling some of the

population of interest. The investigator does not modify the

environment.

Census: A 100% survey. Every element of the population is

listed. Seldom used: difficult and time-consuming to

compile, and expensive.

population from which the sample will be drawn.

Note: It is important that the sampling frame be representative

of the population.

Sample Design: The process of selecting sample elements

from the sampling frame.

Note: There are many different types of sample designs.

Usually they all fit into two categories: judgment samples and

probability samples.

being typical.

Items are selected that are representative of the population.

The validity of the results from a judgment sample reflects

the soundness of the collectors judgment.

Probability Samples: Samples in which the elements to be

selected are drawn on the basis of probability. Each element

in a population has a certain probability of being selected as

part of the sample.

element in the population has a equal probability of being

chosen. Equivalently, all samples of size n have an equal

chance of being selected. Random samples are obtained either

by sampling with replacement from a finite population or by

sampling without replacement from an infinite population.

Note:

1. Inherent in the concept of randomness: the next result (or

occurrence) is not predictable.

2. Proper procedure for selecting a random sample: use a

random number generator or a table of random numbers.

employee to commute to work each morning. A random

sample of 35 employees will be selected and their commuting

time will be recorded.

There are 2712 employees.

Each employee is numbered: 0001, 0002, 0003, etc. up to

2712.

Using four-digit random numbers, a sample is identified:

1315, 0987, 1125, etc.

sampling frame is selected, starting from the first element

which is randomly selected from the first k elements.

Note: The systematic technique is easy to execute. However,

it has some inherent dangers when the sampling frame is

repetitive or cyclical in nature. In these situations the results

may not approximate a simple random sample.

Stratified Random Sample: A sample obtained by

stratifying the sampling frame and then selecting a fixed

number of items from each of the strata by means of a simple

random sampling technique.

obtained by stratifying the sampling frame and then selecting

a number of items in proportion to the size of the strata (or by

quota) from each strata by means of a simple random

sampling technique.

Cluster Sample: A sample obtained by stratifying the

sampling frame and then selecting some or all of the items

from some of, but not all, the strata.

and Statistics

Probability: Properties of the population are

assumed known. Answer questions about the

sample based on these properties.

Statistics: Use information in the sample to

draw a conclusion about the population.

red. A handful of 10 is selected.

Probability question: What is the probability that 3 of the 10

selected are red?

Example: A handful of 10 M&Ms is selected from a jar

containing 1000 candy pieces. Three M&Ms in the handful

are red.

Statistics question: What is the proportion of red M&Ms in

the entire jar?

The electronic technology has had a

tremendous effect on the field of statistics.

Many statistical techniques are repetitive in

nature: computers and calculators are good at

this.

Lots of statistical software packages:

MINITAB, SYSTAT, STATA, SAS,

Statgraphics, SPSS, and calculators.

methodology is very important. The burden is on the

user to ensure that the appropriate methods are

correctly applied and that accurate conclusions are

drawn and communicated to others.

Note: The textbook illustrates statistical procedures

using MINITAB, EXCEL 97, and the TI-83.

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