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Radiation Induced

Arun Babu
Aabhash Agrawal

Emission or transmission ofenergyin the form of
waves or particles through space or through a
Neutrons, ions, electrons and gamma rays.
All of these forms of radiation have the capability
to displace atoms from their lattice sites, which is
the fundamental process that drives the changes
in structural metals.

Itis the process by which an object is exposed
Spatial redistribution of solute and impurity
elements in the metal.
produces point defects and defect clusters
with an approximately random distribution
throughout the material.
These defects are mobile and attracted to
dislocations, grain boundaries and other defect

Radiation Induced
Formation of mobile defects- attracted to sinks- such as
dislocations or GBS.

different atomic species in an alloy move at different

rates in response to these point-defect fluxes - some
species move towards sinks while others move away.
inverse kirkendall effect

Causes significant changes in the local composition

near sinks such as grain boundaries
implications for the bulk properties of materials.
RIS leads to chromium depletion in GBSs.
Radiation assisted stress corrosion cracking in
austenitic face

300 series stainless steel irradiated at 6 DPI


Z. Jiao, 2011, austenitic stainless


Parameters affecting RIS

Vacancy formation energy- Less RIS for more energy- Threshold energy
exists for RIS below which RIS constant
Vacancy segregation energy- difference between the formation energy
at a GB site and in the bulk. The higher segregation energy -lower
vacancy formation energy.

Parameters affecting RIS

Grain boundary energy- less RIS for less energy
GBvacancy interaction width - the range in which the vacancy
formation energy decreases by a certain percentage from the bulk
value-no correlation with segregation obtained
segregation site density per GB area : all sites meets the energy
criterion are included. how many potential segregation sites are
available at the GB

Parameters affecting RIS

Introduction of coherent twins into a microstructure

method to suppress deleterious Cr segregation
but does not provide adequate sites for defect annihilation-causes radiatio
induced hardening

CM Bar et al., 2014, 316L austeni

stainless steel

Parameters affecting RIS

3 coherent twin-a high formation
energy and very low
magnitude for RIS.
3 incoherent twin and the 16 GB had
similar vacancy formations energies,
0.90 eV and 0.82 eV, respectively, and
exhibited similar Cr depletion.
7 GB the formation energy was much
lower (0.26 eV)-equal RIS-threshold
value below which it cannot segregate

CM Bar et al., 2014, 316L austenitic

stainless steel

Parameters affecting RIS

T.S. Duh et al., 2000, protonirradiated 304 stainless steel

K.G. Field et al. , 9 wt.% Cr

model ferritic/martensitic steel

Christopher M. Barr, Gregory A. Vetterick, Kinga A. Unocic, Khalid Hattar, Xian-Ming Bai, Mitra L. Taheri,
Acta Materialia 67 (2014) 145155
Selby, Aaron Patrick, "Modeling Radiation-Induced Segregation in Ferritic-Martensitic Steels. " Master's
Thesis, University of
Tennessee, 2015
Kevin G. Field, Leland M. Barnard, Chad M. Parish, Jeremy T. Busby, Dane Morgan, Todd R. Allen, Journal of
Nuclear Materials 435 (2013) 172180
T.S. Duh, J.J. Kai, F.R. Chen, Journal of Nuclear Materials 283-287 (2000) 198-204
Z. Jiao, G.S. Was, Acta Materialia 59 (2011) 12201238
K.G. Field,Leland M. Barnard, Chad M. Parish,Jeremy T. Busby, Dane Morgan,Todd R. Allen
Journal of Nuclear Materials 435 (2013) 172180
T.S. Duh, JK Kai, FR Chen, LH Wang, , Journal of Nuclear Materials 294 (2001) 267-273
Christopher M. Barr,Gregory A. Vetterick, Kinga A. Unocic, Khalid Hattar, Xian-Ming Bai, Mitra L. Taheri
Acta Materialia 67 (2014) 145155

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