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SEMINAR

ON

MARPOL
ANNEXURES AND IMPACT ON SHIP
DESIGN

INCEPTION
The MARPOL Convention is the main
International Convention covering
prevention of pollution of the
marine environment by ships from
operational or accidental causes.
It is a combination of two treaties
adopted
in
1973
and
1978
respectively
and
updated
by
amendments through the years.

AIM
The
Convention
includes
regulations aimed at preventing
and minimizing pollution from ships
both accidental pollution and
that from routine operations.
These regulations influence the ship
design cycle in many ways.
Some of these will be discussed.

RECAP OF THE ANNEXES


Annex I: Regulations for the
Prevention of Pollution by Oil
Covers prevention of pollution by oil
from operational measures as well as
from accidental discharges.

IMPLICATIONS OF ANNEXURE I
Special Areas according to MARPOL:
Mediterranean, Baltic, Black Sea, Red Sea, Gulfs area, Gulf of Aden,Oman Area
of the Arabian Sea, NW European waters, Southern South Africa water. Any
discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixtures into the Antarctic Area (south of
latitude 60S) is prohibited.
1.1.Outside Special Area Discharge may take place if :
en route (discharge spread over great area)
processed through an oil filtering equipment (15 ppm)
the oil content without dilution <15 ppm (parts per million)
1.2. In a Special Area :

oil filtering equipment (15 ppm) should have alarm (oil content meter) and

automatic stopping device (3-way valve)


1.4. In a ship 400 GT constructed after 1 July 1982,
oil shall not be carried in a forepeak tank or a tank forward of the collision bulkhead.

IMPACT OF ANNEX I ON
DESIGN

sludge tanks of adequate capacity with regard to the type of machinery and length of
voyage
oil fuel tanks protection against collision/grounding (i.e. double hull) for ships with an
aggregate oil fuel capacity of 600 m, delivered on or after 1 August 2010. A max.
capacity limit of m per oil fuel tank is 2,500.
All ships 400 GT must be fitted with oil filtering equipment . (Oily Water Separator)
producing an effluent with oil content <15ppm. Ships 10000 GT shall be fitted with
oil filtering equipment(15ppm) with alarm and automatic stopping device.
Oily Water Separators (OWS) and Oil Content Meters (OCM)(bilge alarms) shall
be approved as per IMO resolutions: A.393(X), MEPC.60 (33) or since 01.01.2005
MEPC.107(49) which states that:
OWS to be tested also with a stable emulsion
OCM to include a recording function for date, time, alarm and operating status. All
records to be stored for 18 months

Every crude oil tanker 20,000 dwt and every product carrier 30,000 dwt
delivered after 1 June 1982, are required to be equipped with the
segregated ballast tanks providing a measure of protection against oil
outflow in the event of grounding or collision. Every oil tanker 5,000 dwt
delivered on or after 6 July 1996 shall be fitted with double hulls. Oil
tankers 150 GT shall be equipped with Oil Discharge Monitoring
Equipment (ODME).

CERTIFICATES & DOCUMENTS


Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate (including the Record of Construction and Equipment
(Form A or B)
Statement of compliance for Condition Assessment Scheme (Tankers only)
Type of Approval Certificates:
Oily Water Separator
15 PPM Alarm
Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control System
(Tankers Only)
Oil/Water Interface Detector (Tanker Only)
Documents
All ships:
Oil Record Book (Part 1)
SOPEP *
Tanker specific (Marpol Annex I):
Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control System ODME Manual
(recordings from ODME equipment to be kept onboard for at least 3 years)

Crude oil Washing Manual*, if applicable


Oil Record Book (part 2)
Access to shore based damage stability and residual strength
Calculations
Dedicated Clean Ballast Tank Operation Manual
Damage Stability Approval
Vapour Emission Control System Procedure (Manual)

CRIME & PENALTY FOCUS


U.S. Regulation summary:
Over $200 million dollars in criminal fines since 1998 as well as : restitution,
community service and probation with court supervised environmental
compliance programs.
Personal punishment : 17 years of imprisonment since 1998 for senior
shipboard officers and engineers.
CRIMES
Crimes committed for financial motive.
Deliberate crimes omitting pollution prevention equipment
Cost saving, easiest & quickest method of performing task
Discharges made at night, hiding of bypass equipment, use of dispersants,
tricking of OCM, falsification of Oil Record Book and Tank Sounding Log,
etc.
Faking of vessel records to mislead port
authorities.
Most cases involve circumventing of justice
(destruction of evidence, alteration of documents,
providing false witness, committing perjury).

ANNEX II:NOXIOUS LIQUID


SUBSTANCES IN BULK

CATEGORIZATION OF NOXIOUS LIQUID


SUBSTANCES AND OTHER
SUBSTANCES

Category X: Noxious Liquid Substances which, if discharged into the sea from
tank cleaning or de-ballasting operations, are deemed to present a major hazard
to either marine resources or human health and, therefore, justify the prohibition
of the discharge into the marine environment;
Category Y: Noxious Liquid Substances which, if discharged into the sea from
tank cleaning or de-ballasting operations, are deemed to present a hazard to
either marine resources or human health or cause harm to amenities or other
legitimate uses of the sea and therefore justify a limitation on the quality and
quantity of the discharge into the marine environment
Category Z: Noxious Liquid Substances which, if discharged into the sea from
tank cleaning or de-ballasting operations, are deemed to present a minor hazard
to either marine resources or human health and therefore justify less stringent
restrictions on the quality and quantity of the discharge into the marine
environment; and
Other Substances: substances which have been evaluated and found to fall
outside Category X, Y or Z because they are considered to present no harm to
marine resources, human health, amenities or other legitimate uses of the sea
when discharged into the sea from tank cleaning of deballasting operations.

SHIP TYPES AS PER THE IMO

The International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying
Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk IBC Code (Ch- 17&18) provides detailed standards
for the construction and equipment of three types of chemical tankers (Types 1, 2
and 3)
IMO Ship Type 1 is a chemical tanker intended for the transportation of products
considered to present the greatest overall hazard. The quantity of cargo required
to be carried in a Type 1 ship should not exceed 1,250 m3 in any one tank.

IMO Ship Type 2 is intended to transport products with appreciably severe


environmental and safety hazards which require significant preventive measures
to preclude escape of such cargo. The quantity of cargo required to be carried in
a Type 2 ship should not exceed 3000 m3 in any one tank.

IMO Ship Type 3 is a chemical tanker intended to transport products with


sufficiently severe environmental and safety hazards. These products require a
moderate degree of containment to increase survival capability in a damaged
condition. There is no filling restriction for chemicals assigned to Ship Type 3.

CARGO TANK LOCATION


Cargo tanks shall be located at the following distances inboard:
1. Type 1 ships: from the side shell plating, not less than the transverse extent
of damage specified in 2.5.1.1.2, (B/5 or 11.5m whichever is less), and from the
molded line of the bottom shell plating at centerline, not less than the vertical
extent of damage specified in 2.5.1.2.3, (B/15 or 6 m whichever is less), and
nowhere less than 760 mm from the shell plating. This requirement does not
apply to the tanks for diluted slops arising from tank washing.
2. Type 2 ships: from the molded line of the bottom shell plating at centerline,
not less than the vertical extent of damage specified in 2.5.1.2.3, (B/15 or 6 m
which ever is less), and nowhere less than 760 mm from the shell plating. This
requirement does not apply to the tanks for diluted slops arising from tank
washing.
3. Type 3 ships: no requirement"

CARGO TANK LOCATION &


CONFIGURATION

OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

Ships constructed before 1 July 1986 shall be provided with a pumping and
piping arrangement to ensure that each tank certified for the carriage of
substances in Category X or Y does not retain a quantity of residue in
excess of 300 litres
in the tank and its associated piping and that each tank certified for the
carriage of substances in Category Z does not retain a quantity of residue in
excess of 900 litres in the tank and its associated piping. A performance test
shall be required to be carried out.
Every ship constructed on or after 1 July 1986 but before 1 January 2007
shall be provided with a pumping and piping arrangement to ensure that
each tank certified for the carriage of substances in Category X or Y does not
retain a quantity of residue in excess of 100 litres in the tank and its
associated piping and that each tank certified for the carriage of substances
in Category Z does not retain a quantity of residue in excess of 300 litres in
the tank and its associated piping.
Every ship constructed on or after 1 January 2007 shall be provided with a
pumping and piping arrangement to ensure that each tank certified for the
carriage of substances in Category X, Y or Z does not retain a quantity of
residue in excess of 75 litres in the tank and its associated piping.
After 1 January 2007, the stripping performance requirements will apply to all

STRIPPING & DISCHARGE


REQUIREMENTS

CERTIFICATION OF CARGO

All non-oil cargoes carried in bulk are


classified by the IMO and/or the vessels
flag state/administration
The carriage requirements for a product are
then determined by these entities using the
guidelines set forth by GESAMP* and IMO
If regulated by the IBC Code those cargoes
must be authorised for carriage on that
particular ship and listed on the ships
Certificate of Fitness (CoF)
Every chemical tanker is required to have a
Certificate of Fitness (CoF) indicating that
it is certified to carry certain products
The issuance of a CoF will also require a
Procedures and Arrangements (P&A)
Manual

ANNEXURE III
Annex III: Prevention of Pollution by Harmful
Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged Form [1]
Contains general requirements for
the issuing of detailed standards on
packing,
marking,
labelling,
documentation, stowage, quantity
limitations,
exceptions
and
notifications.
For the purpose of this Annexure,
harmful substances are those
substances which are identified as
marine pollutants in the as per IMDG
code or which meet the other
specified criteria.

Rule does not apply to ship stores and


equipment.[3]
Packaging containing small quantities of
harmful substances may be exempted from
marking.
Certain harmful substances have constraints
with regard to quantity carried onboard.
Harmful substances shall be properly stowed
and secured so as to minimize the danger to
the environment also while ensuring safety of
life onboard the vessel. The safety of life is
taken care of by the SOLAS and the MLC.
Packaging of these harmful substances should
provide correct technical names and leave no
ambiguity in the mind of the user. Marine
pollutants should be indicated very specifically.
[3]
Proper analysis of effects of harmful
substances are to be taken into account
(chemical, physical or biological) while
regulating the washing of leakages overboard,
especially considering the effects on crew.
Harmful substances can only be jettisoned
when it is necessary for the safety of life
onboard.

ANNEXURE IV
Annex IV: Prevention of Pollution by Sewage
from Ships [1]
Contains requirements to control pollution of the
sea by sewage; the discharge of sewage into the
sea is prohibited, except when the ship has in
operation an approved sewage treatment plant.
Although the discharge of sewage from ships
into the sea is of concern nowadays, the major
contributors are still the land based activities.
Since, it is still considered that higher seas are
capable of assimilating and dealing with raw
sewage through bacterial action, sewage
disposal is limited only up to certain distance
away from the nearest land.

Governments are responsible for


providing adequate reception facilities
at ports, but the ship should be capable
of stowing the sewage waste (sewage
holding tank) until the time comes for
proper disposal.[3]
Also proper sewage treatment facilities
onboard are mandatory if sewage has to
be jettisoned.
Discharge pipelines to have proper
discharge connections and valves.
Holding tanks are to be built to the
satisfaction of the Government and the
Classification Society concerned and
should be designed based on
endurance, crew capacity, mode of
operation etc.[3]
Same as packaged harmful substances,
discharge of sewage is allowed
anywhere subject to the condition that
safety of life is at stake in the event of
some disaster.

ANNEXURE V
Annex V: Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from
Ships (entered into force 31 December 1988)
Garbage means all kinds of
victual, domestic and
operational waste excluding
fresh fish and parts thereof,
generated during the
normal operation of the ship
and liable to be disposed of
continuously or periodically
except those substances
which are defined or listed
in other Annexes to the
present Convention

WHY GARBAGE CONTROL?

Time taken for objects to dissolve to


sea

SPECIAL AREAS

Special areas mean a sea area where for recognised technical


reasons in relation to its oceanographical and ecological condition
and to the particular character of its traffic the adoption of special

REQUIREMENTS FOR DISPOSAL OF GARBAGE AT SEA


Garbage Type

Outside Special
Areas

In Special
Areas

Plastics including ropes, nets,

bags

Disposal
prohibited

Disposal
prohibited

Floating dunnage, lining, packing


materials
Ground downpaper products,
rags, glass, metal, bottles,
crockery, etc
Cargo residues, paper products,
rags,
glass, metal, bottles, crockery
etc

>25 miles
Disposal
offshore
prohibited
>3 miles offshore Disposal
prohibited
>12 miles
offshore

Disposal
prohibited

Food waste comminuted or


ground

>12 miles
offshore

>12 miles
offshore

Incinerator ashes

>12 miles
offshore

Disposal
prohibited

GARBAGE MANAGEMENT PLANS AND


GARBAGE RECORD-KEEPING
The Plan should include :
- written procedures for: collecting,
storing, processing
and disposing of garbage (using
onboard equipment)
- the designated person in charge of
carrying out the plan

Garbage Management
Plan
All ships of 400 gross
tonnage and above and
ships carrying more than 15
persons shall carry a
Garbage Management Plan
and Garbage Disposal
Record

The Plan should be :


- in the working language of the crew
and adapted for
individual ships
- regularly reviewed and checked by
the Master if the it is being
correctly adapted as part of his weekly
inspections.

PROCESSING OF GARBAGE

Ships may be provided with onboard incinerators,


compactors, comminuters or other equipment for
garbage processing

Advantages of such facilities:

disposal of certain garbage possible at sea


onboard storage space reduction
helpful in unloading garbage at a port
-allowing absorption of some types of garbage

STORING AND DISPOSING OF


GARBAGE

All disposal of garbage must be consistent with MARPOL 73/78


Regulations.
All processed and unprocessed garbage shall be:
- stored in tight, good condition, securely covered containers so
that no
garbage is released into the environment. (also required by Port
Health
and Agriculture Authorities in many countries from a health and
disease
control point of view)
- landed to reception facilities ashore and the Master shall ensure
that all local regulations are adhered to
- processed according to the vessels local agent requirements
such as segregation, cleanliness of garbage and disposal
containers / transportation bag

ANNEXURE VI
Annex V: Regulations for the Prevention
of Air Pollution from Ships

Why MARPOL Annex VI?


Emission Gases from Ships
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) create Ozone and smog
Sulphur Oxides (SOx) create acidification
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a GHG
Carbon Monoxide (CO)- is s very toxic gas
Hydrocarbons (HC) gas, soot and some particulates

The concentration of the differing exhaust gases is variable


according to the
engine type,
engine settings and
fuel type.

The Regulations
There are 19 Regulations but the following
Regulations will impact Vessel operation for
ALL VESSELS ABOVE 400 grt
-Regulation 12 Ozone Depleting Substances
-Regulation 13 NOx emissions
-Regulation 14 Sulphur Oxide emissions
-Regulation 15 VOC emissions
-Regulation 16 Shipboard Incinerators
-Regulation 18 Fuel Oil Quality control

Regulation 12
Ozone Depleting Substances

Deliberate Emissions of Ozone Depleting


Substances (HFCs) are prohibited
New installations can only use HCFCs
(hydrochlorofluorocarbons) until 1 st Jan 2020.
These substances, when removed from ships,
must be delivered to reception facilities

Regulation 13 - NOx
Regulation applies to engines > 130 kW and
not to engines used solely for

the purpose of emergencies, related to the


emissions from the engines. The

manufacturer would provide a technical


manual for the engines specifying the

settings in order to comply with the


regulations.

NOx emissions are controlled by Tier I, II & III

Regulation 14 - SOx

Under the revised MARPOL Annex VI, the


global sulphur cap is reduced initially to
3.50% effective from 1 January 2012
Then progressively to 0.50% effective from
1 January 2020.
The limits applicable in ECAs for SOx and
particulate matter were reduced to 1.00%,
beginning on 1 July 2010 Being further
reduced to 0.10 %, effective from 1
January 2015.

Emission Control Areas

Regulation 15 - VOCs

A tanker carrying crude shall have and implement


onboard a VOC management plan. The plan should
provide
Written procedures for minimising VOC emissions
during loading, sea passage
and discharging
Consideration given to additional VOC generated
during COW
Identify person responsible for implementing the plan
Be written in the working language of foreign going
ships

Regulation 16 - Incinerators

Incineration of the following items are not


allowedResidues of cargo subject to annex I, II & III
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)
Garbage having traces of heavy metals
Refined petroleum products containing
halogen compounds
Sewage sludge and sludge oil not generated
onboard
Exhaust gas cleaning systems

Regulation 18 Fuel Oil Quality


-Fuel oil shall be blends of hydrocarbons derived from
petroleum refining
-Fuel oil shall be free from inorganic acid
-Fuel oil shall not include any added substance or
chemical waste which either:

- Jeopardises the safety of ships or adversely


affects the performance of the machinery, or
-Is harmful to personnel, or
Contributes overall to additional air
pollution

REFERENCES
[1] International Convention for the
Prevention of Pollution from Ships
(MARPOL
73/78)
PRACTICAL
GUIDE (2015)
[2] PREVENTION OF MARINE
LITTER
POLLUUNDER
IMO
CONVENTI-1st NOWPAP Workshop
on Marine Litter Incheon, Republic
of Korea (2006)
[3] http://www.marpoltraining.com/
Annexures I-VI; their application,
considerations
in
design
and
management.

THANK YOU