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PLAN
y Introduction of Research
y Objectives of Research
y Motivation of Research
y Terminologies
y Types of Research
y Unscientific methods of Problem solving
y Scientific methods of Problem solving / Research process
y Criteria for good Research
y Problems encountered by Researchers in India
y The Physical therapist Ȃ As Contributor to Research
y Survival and Growth through Research
y The role of Research in Physical therapy

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NTRODUCT ON
y Search of knowledgedz

y It is a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on


specific topicdz

y Õ 
   A careful inquiry
specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledgedz

y Õ   research comprises defining and


redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solution;
collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and
reaching conclusion; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to
determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.

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OBJECT ES OF RESEARCH
y To gain familiarity with a phenomenon

y To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular


individual, situation or a group

y To determine the frequency with which something occurs


or with which it is associated with something else

y To identify the casual relationship between variables

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‘OT AT ON N RESEARCH
y §esire to get a research degree along with its consequential
benefits

y §esire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved


problems

y §esire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work

y §esire to be of service to society

y §esire to get respectability

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SO‘E TER‘ NOLOG ES
y   Measurement of records of facts made under specific
conditions

y [ tentative assumption of the study or expected


results of the study

y   ! The part of the experiment that


the researcher is manipulating; also called experimental or
treatment variable.

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SO‘E TER‘ NOLOG ES
y   !The effect of the Independent
variable

y " A total number of subjects which they abide


the inclusion and exclusion criteria.

y   # #• development of


discrepancies leading to proposals of new paradigm that
better explain the data.

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SO‘E TER‘ NOLOG ES
y r $ A research paper that is a critical evaluation
of research on a particular topic.

y r     % & A formal preparation


that includes introduction, review of literature and
proposed method of conducting study.

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TYPES OF RESEARCH
. §escriptive research
2. Analytical research
3. Applied research
4. Basic research
5. Quantitative research
6. Qualitative research
7. Conceptual research

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DESCR PT E RESEARCH
y Surveys & fact finding enquiries of different kinds
y Purpose is description of the state of affairs as it exists
at present.
y Researcher has no control over the variables; he can
only report what has happened or what is happening.

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SUB S ONS OF DESCR PT E RESEARCH
y Survey research
y The case study
y Job analysis
y Observational research
y Correlation study
y Comparative study
y Epidemiological research

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ANALYT CAL RESEARCH
y Involves in-debth study and evaluation of available
information in an attempt to explain complex
phenomenon.
y The researcher has to use facts or information already
available and analyze these to make a critical
evaluation of the material.

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SUBD S ONS OF ANALYT CAL RESEARCH
y [istorical research
y Philosophical research
y Review
y Research synthesis ( meta analysis i.e. analysis the
review that already published)

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APPL ED / ACT ON RESEARCH

y ginding a solution an immediate problem


y Say a solution

SUBTYPES
y Marketing research
y Evaluation research

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BAS C /PURE/ FUNDA‘ENTAL RESEARCH

y generalization and with the formulation of theory


y Natural phenomenon and mathematics are the
examples of basic research
y ginding information in broad base.

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ÚUANT TAT E RESEARCH
y Based on measurement of quantity or amount
y Weighing, measuring are the examples of quantitative
research

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ÚUAL TAT E RESEARCH

y Phenomena relating quality or kind


y Character, personality and man kind are the examples
of variable used to measure the qualitative research
y Word association test, Sentence completion test are
the examples of qualitative research

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CONCEPTUAL / EXER ‘ENTAL RESEARCH

y Related to some abstract ideas / theory experiment


y Attempt to establish cause and effect relationship

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UNSC ENT F C ‘ETHODS OF PROBLE‘ SOL NG
y Tenacity
y Intuition
y Authority
y The Rationalistic method
y The Empirical method

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TENAC TY

y Sometime cling to certain beliefs despite lack of


supporting evidence
y Superstitions are good examples of this method called
tenacity.
y Coaches and athletes wearing same dress
y Black cat brought bad luck

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NTU T ON

y Intuitive knowledge is sometimes considered to be


common sense or self evident
y gactual evidence
y Self evident truth sometime may found to be false

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AUTHOR TY

y Reference to some authority has long been used as a


source of knowledge.
y Galileoǯs telescope
y Ptolemyǯs explanation about world and heaven

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THE RAT ONAL ST C ‘ETHOD

y §erive knowledge through reasoning


y Basket ball players are tall.
y Tony is a basket ball player
y Therefore, tony is tall

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THE E‘P R CAL ‘ETHOD

y §escribes data or a study that is based on objective


observation
y Gathering data is scientific method but here
experience plays major role.

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SC ENT F C ‘ETHOD OF PROBLE‘ SOL NG /
RESEARCH PROCESS

y gormulating research problem


y Review of literature
y §eveloping hypothesis
y Preparing research and sample design
y Collecting data
y Execution of project
y Analysis of data
y [ypothesis testing
y §iscussion
y Preparation of report or thesis

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FOR‘ULAT NG RESEARCH PROBLE‘

y Problems are divided two types


y Problems which relate to state of nature
y Those which relate correlation between variables
{ Subject of interest to be selected as a problem
{ Always select unsolved problem
{ Initially, may propose in Broadway and ambiguities may
resolved
{ geasibility

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FOR‘ULAT NG RESEARCH PROBLE‘
y Understanding the problem thoroughly
y Rephrasing the same into meaningful term
y §iscuss the problems with colleagues
y Staff members and guide
y Take a view of old reviews
y The final question should be precise and
grammatically correct and should state exactly what
you expect to learn as a result of a study.

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RE EW OF L TERATURE

y Journals
y References
y Reports
y Books
y Library is good friend
y Internet and websites

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DE ELOP NG HYPOTHES S
y It should be very specific and limited to the piece of
research in hand because it has to be tested.
y The role of hypothesis is to guide the researcher by
delimiting the area of research and to keep him on the
right track.

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DE ELOP NG HYPOTHES S
y §iscussion with colleagues and experts about the
problem, its origin and the objectives in seeking
solution
y Examinations of data and records
y Review of similar studies in the area or of the studies
on similar problems
y Personal investigation which involves original field
interviews.

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PREPAR NG RESEARCH AND SA‘PLE DES GN

y State the conceptual structure within which research would


be conducted
y Type of research design
y Experimental , quasi experimental and non experimental
y Setting of the study
y Population
y Criteria for selection
y Variables
y Sample selection

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COLLECT NG DATA

y Several ways are there to collect the appropriate data


y Primary data and secondary data
y By observation
y Personal interview
y Telephone interview
y Questionnaires
y Survey

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EXECUT ON OF PROJECT
y It is a very important step in research process
y If it is proceeds on correct lines, the data to be
collected would be adequate and dependable.
y The step should be taken that the data should be in
the control of statistics so that the collected
information is in accordance with the pre defined
designed to tackle this problem

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ANALYS S OF DATA
y The analysis of data requires a number of closely
related operations such as establishment of categories,
the application of theses categories to raw data
through tabulation, coding and editing like statistical
interference.

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ANALYS S OF DATA
y  this operation is usually done at this stage
through which the categories of data are transformed
into symbols that may be tabulated and counted.
y w it is the procedure that improves the quality
of the data for coding
y Ê !"  It is a part of the technical procedure
wherein the classified data are put in the form of
tables.

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HYPOTHES S TEST NG
y After analyzing the data, the researcher is in position
to test the hypothesis.
y Inference
y Student Ǯtǯ test, Chi-square, g- test are the examples of
statistical techniques
y At end, researcher have reject or not reject the null
hypothesis.

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D SCUSS ON

y Chapter or section of a research report that explains


what the results mean.
y Its very important section to add the appropriate
supportive literatures.

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PREPARAT ON OF REPORT OR THES S

y The layout of the report should be as follows.


y Preliminary pages
y The main text
y The end matter

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CR TER A FOR GOOD RESEARCH
y The purpose of the research should be clearly
defined and common concepts be used
y The research procedure used should be described
in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to
repeat the research for further advancement,
keeping the continuity of what has already been
attained.
y The procedure design of the research should be
carefully planned to yield results that tare as
objectives as possible

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CR TER A FOR GOOD RESEARCH
y The researcher should report with complete frankness,
flaws in procedural design and estimate their effects
upon the findings.
y The analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to
reveal its significance and the method of analysis used
should be appropriate. The validity and reliability of
the data should be checked carefully.

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CR TER A FOR GOOD RESEARCH
y Conclusions should be confined to those justified by
the data of the research and limited to those for which
the data provide an adequate basis.
y Greater confidence in research is warranted if the
researcher is experienced, has a good reputation in
research and is a person of integrity.

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PROBLE‘S ENCOUNTERED BY RESEARCHERS N
ND A

y The lack of a scientific training in the methodology of


research
y There is insufficient interaction between university
and the companies
y Confidentiality
y Research studies overlapping one another are
undertaken quire often for want of adequate
information

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PROBLE‘S ENCOUNTERED BY
RESEARCHERS N ND A
y §oes not exist a code of conduct
y Improper library management and functioning
y Improper delivery of government orders, reports and
etc.,
y Time availability improper
y gunding source

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THE PHYS CAL THERAP ST ʹ AS
CONTR BUTOR TO RESEARCH
y Worthingam ( 5 ) stated that to be professional,
members of a group must posses a body of knowledge
that is both identifiable and different from that of
other professions. They must also assume
responsibility for adding to that body of knowledge

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THE PHYS CAL THERAP ST ʹ AS
CONTR BUTOR TO RESEARCH
y Each physical therapy clinician should be
conversant enough with research methods to know
from whom to seek help when initiating a research
project. Though participation in such clinical
research the physical therapist can improve patient
care.
y A clinician who has studied research methods
knows rigorous investigation is required before any
conclusions about the effect of a treatment can be
drawn.

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SUR AL & GROWTH THROUGH RESEARCH
y [ealth care professionals unable to prove that they
prevent disease, improve health or restore function
will not be reimbursed for their service
y Physical therapy cannot justify its existence on the
basis of what it does for patients, it will cease to be a
profession in all too short time.

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SUR AL & GROWTH THROUGH
RESEARCH
y Instead of viewing increased accountability as a
problem or threat, we must view it as an opportunity to
document the positive contributions physical therapy
makes to the public it serves.
y The bridge between what physical therapists believe
they contribute to improving patient function and the
documentation of those improvements is clinical
research.

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Role of research in PT
y Clinical service
y Academic service
y Research oriented.

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