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100G Technology

A basic introduction
Dr. Paul Brooks
August 2013

Aim

This presentation aims to help you understand


the following:

The 100G client side


The drivers for 2nd generation 100G
CFP2
New technology challenges
Developing and validating 2nd generation 100G

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100G flavours

40GE & 100GE


Native Ethernet running at 41.25 Gbs or 103.125Gbs typically
over an LR4 (4 x 10G/25G) optical interface (4 on a SMF),
coding via PCS layer (VL & XLAUI/CAUI)

Line side 100G


Complex modulation => DP-QPSK (dual polarization,
quadrature shift keying)
Coherent detection complex DSP based receivers BUT can
compensate for PMD & CD electronically
100G carried on one coloured lambda, compatible with existing
infrastructure (ROADM, EFDAs etc)

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100G Where in the network?


Router

CFP optics
4 x 25G

Router Router via 100GE

Router

Router switch via 40GE

CFP optics
4 x 25G

Likely 4x10G CFP first.


Also CXP/QSFP

Switch
CFP optics 4
x 28G

Router DWDM
Inter-domain OTU4 (or 100GE)

High density,
short reach
40G & 100G

100G Line side


Modulation &
Strong FEC

Legacy interfaces
SONET, 10G
40G serial etc
Cloud computing etc
High density,
10G & 40G

DWDM equipment

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Segmentation

Enterprise customers
High port density (especially on faceplate)
Today => 48 x SFP+ = 480Gb/s

Very cost sensitive


Cost of pluggables can dominate

Mostly short reach applications


~90% SR (MM, 850nm, ~100m reach) pluggables

Telecoms
Port density not critical
1:1 mapping client line side

Deeper feature set (Optical XC, OTN, router)


mostly long reach (10 km) pluggables
Higher cost per port

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100G Optics
Main current
approach
SR10 MMF
CXP
100GE
Data Centre
Enterprise

100G

LR4 SMF
CFP

Line Side
OIF MSA

10 (SMF)
CFP

100GE
& OTU4

OIF 5 x 7
module

850 nm

Santur (now
Neophotonics)
1550 nm

Next step

CFP2
2012 Beta

CFP4
2014

Lineside
CFP
ASIC inside

CFP2 to replace CFP over time


- Same photonic interface (LR4)
- Electrical bus moving from 10G to 25G

CFP4 high density & lower power


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40G Optics
40G

SR4 (100m MMF)


QSFP+

FR (2km serial SMF)


& G.693 CFP

40GE
Data Centre
Enterprise

850 nm

40GE
& OTU3
& OC-768/
STM-256
2011/2012

LR4 (10km SMF)


& G.695 CFP

Legacy (client & line)


300-pin MSA

40GE
& OTU3
& OC-768/
STM-256

QSFP+
2011

Line Side
OIF MSA

OC-768/
STM-64/
OTU3/
OTU3e1/3e2

DWDM
2011+

1310 nm
1550 nm

1550 nm

SMF Support current on CFP; moving soon to QSFP+


Serial CFP may replace 300-pin MSA in multi-rate 40G applications
For use on current fiber infrastructure
Considerations for line side testing with OIF MSA (same FF as 100G)
QSFP+ will dominate new 40G products for LR & SR
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Focus Today CFP2

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100G SMF Evolution

First Gen CFP is bulky, expensive and power hungry based on 10G electric
interface
Next Gen CFP2/4 is fully based on 25G technology

smaller for higher density to support Terabit line card


- power consumption comparing to CFP
Scalability from CFP (gearbox, MDIO)
lower cost overall

Challenge is integration &


power density

SMF Space

Challenge is 25G I/O

100G LR4
CFP2

100G LR4/10
CFP

2011

2012

2013

100G LR4
3rd Gen

2014
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100G Form Factors Driven by Density

Current state of the art


400 Gb = ~56W
~ 2013
800 Gb = ~64W

~ 2014
1.6 Tb = ~80W

~ 2015
3.2Tb = ~160W
But power density & cooling will remain an issue!
Power is for pluggable optics only, total power will be considerable higher
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CFP Detailed Block Diagram Complexity Revealed!

Photonic integration with


allowed higher density/lower
power TOSA/ROSA but what
about EML vs. DML?

Gearbox moving to CMOS


in 2013
Lower power/cost
Smaller form factor
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CFP2 simplicity drives down cost & power

Tighter photonic integration


Lower complexity electronics
But challenges in thermal density need to be met for future

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100G LR4 CFP2 and CFP4


CFP2
~ 9W

CFP4
>6W

Move to 25G I/O electrical interface (direct 1:1 mapping of electrical &
optical lanes).
CFP2 can support native 10 x 10G CFP4 cannot without MLG IC
Gearbox in module replace with CDR
MDIO control S/W re-use from CFP => CFP2 => CFP4
25G electrical I/O is 1st generation technology!
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CFP2 optical module flavors


Electrical connector
supports 4 x 25G or
10 x 10G operation

Fibre connector will


vary with module
type (MPO/LC)

SR10 vcsel based, lowest cost, lowest


power short reach (300m) MM ribbon
cable
LR4 based on temperature controlled
laser, 10 km reach, price x5 SR10 SM
fibre
SR4 based on 25G vcsel very novel
technology, could offer lower power, low cost
but will require FEC, very short reach MM
ribbon fibre (100m)
LR10 port expander 10 x 10GE ports,
required SM ribbon cable
LR10 (Santur style) 100G carried as 10
lambda on a SM fibre inter-op with
installed base of Santur/Neophotonics LR10
ER4 extended reach (40km) better RX
performance required. Higher power
consumption with price premium
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CFP2, CFP4 & QSFP28

All of these represent next generation 100G


They all offer increased density (and lower power & cost)
than CFP
All have a part to play in the future 100G ecosystem
CFP => very flexible slot that can support 40G (parallel &
serial), 100G (10x10 & 4x25) and line side applications
CFP2 => native support for 10x10 and 4x25G, good thermal
density
CFP4/QSFP28 => ultra high density ideal for datacentric
applications
CFP2, CFP4 & QSFP28 all require a stable 25G I/O to work

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MDIO

MDIO is a serial control bus for control and management of


Gigabit Ethernet pluggable optics
It is used in CFP, CFP2 & CFP4
It is laid out in IEEE 802.3 but is described in depth for the
CFPs in the CFP MSA
It is an integral part of any CFP based system and needs to
be tested and debugged.
QSFP28 will use the I^2C bus
I^2C is a lighter bus not as fast or complex as MDIO
CFP, CFP2, CFP4 => MDIO
SFP, XFP, QSFP+, QSFP28 => I^C

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100G Line-side Module Evolution


OIF Transponder
5 x 7
75W

Price

CFP (32W)
145mm x 76mm
ASIC inside (~20W)

CFP2 (12W)
106mm x 40mm
ASIC outside

Fits on CFP slot (demanding


power envelope) ~32W

Smaller size, lower power dissipation


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Current Challenges for 100G modules

100GE is evolution & revolution


The physical layer (both electrical & photonic is a revolution).
The Ethernet part is an evolution from 10GE

Price point expectations


CFP module prices need to be driven down to allow wider
deployment
CFP does not meet density expectations
ASICS to replace FPGA (port density & cost)

Transition to production & 2nd generation 100G (CFP2 &


25G I/O)
Physical layer will be major challenge 25G is new!

CFP2/4 allows the density & roadmap to cost


expectations
Debate on post CFP2.what role for QSFP2?
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Physical Layer at 25/28G

1st generation 100G used mature (3rd generation 10G)


technology
Even this caused significant challenges for early adopters

2nd generation 100G will use 25/28G I/O


Still very novel technology (1st generation)
New ecosystem of ICs, connectors, PCBs all need validation

Users need test solutions which give true insight into the
issues of the physical layer.
But denser ICs need framed traffic (Ethernet, OTN etc)
Physical layer applications MUST be protocol aware as
required.
Crosstalk, loss, jitter, bit-slips etc will all need troubleshooting.
More intelligence needed to troubleshoot
Margins become critical
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Our Pedigree

October 2009
JDSU releases worlds first 100GE & OTU4 test
set. Unique (patented) features include Lambda
mapping, dynamic skew & MDIO debug.
Product now includes comprehensive OTN
mapping from ODUflex upwards.

December 2011
JDSU releases most compact and
comprehensive 100G field solution, includes
native support for CFP & QSFP+

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October 2012
JDSU announce worlds 1st CFP2 test solution

CFP2 is here now!


It is the form factor to take 100G to prime time
The 25/28G I/O is extremely demanding
New generation T&M is required to move CFP2 and beyond
to successful deployment

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Paul Brooks

Questions?