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Birla vishvakarma

mahvidyalaya
ELECTRICAL EARTHING
NAME:- PATEL CHINTAN
EN.NO:-130070109011
SUBJECT:-E.E.E
TOPIC NAME:ELECTRICAL
EARTHING
SUB. TEACHER:-G.K SHARMA SIR

Concept of Earthing Systems


All the people living or working in residential,
commercial and industrial installations, particularly
the operators and personnel who are in close
operation and contact with electrical systems and
machineries, should essentially be protected against
possible electrification. To achieve this protection,
earthing system of an installation is defined,
designed and installed according to the standard
requirements..

What Is Earthing
The term earthing means connecting the neutral point of supply
system or the non current carrying parts of the electrical apparatus to
the general mass of earth in such a manner that all times an
immediate discharge of electrical energy takes place without danger.

Objectives of the earthing

Provide an alternative path for the fault current to flow


so that it will not endanger the user
Ensure that all exposed conductive parts do not reach a
dangerous potential
Maintain the voltage at any part of an electrical system
at a known value so as to prevent over current or
excessive voltage on the appliances or equipment.

Qualities Of Good Earthing

Must be of low electrical resistance


Must be of good corrosion resistance
Must be able to dissipate high fault current repeatedly

Purpose of Earthing
To save human life from danger of electrical shock or death by
blowing a fuse i.e. To provide an alternative path for the fault
current to flow so that it will not endanger the user
To protect buildings, machinery & appliances under fault
conditions ie. To ensure that all exposed conductive parts do not
reach a dangerous potential.
To provide safe path to dissipate lightning and short circuit currents.
To provide stable platform for operation of sensitive electronic
equipments i.e. To maintain the voltage at any part of an electrical
system at a known value so as to prevent over current or excessive
voltage on the appliances or equipment .
To provide protection against static electricity from friction

Electric shock

An electric shock (electrocution)occurs when two portion of a


persons body come in contact with electrical conductors of a
circuit which is at different potentials, thus producing a
potential difference across the body.
The human body does have resistance and when the body is
connected between two conductors at different potential a
circuit is formed through the body and current will flow
When the human body comes in contact with only one
conductor, a circuit is not formed and nothing happens. When
the human body comes in contact with circuit conductors, no
matter what the voltage is there is potential for harm.

Electric shock

When a high voltage such as 13,800V is involved the


body is literally cooked and at times explodes

Short circuit
To analyze how an electrical shock occurs and how
grounding is applied you need to look at the circuit
involved.
Fig. illustrates the basic circuit that consist of a
source, a transformer or generator for all AC circuits,
circuit protection, conductors(R1s), and a load (RL).

Short circuit

A short circuit is any unintended connection Rsc across the


circuit conductors between the power source and the load
See the second circuit in fig short circuit are classified as
bolted shorts, momentary shorts,intermittent shorts, or high
impedance shorts. A bolted short which is rare is a very low
resistant connection such as two conductors being bolted
together.

Short circuit

Most short are phase to ground and short which start as phase
to phase or phase to neutral progress to a phase to ground
short
When considering short circuit and protecting against the
damage they can cause one needs to know what is the
maximum amount of short circuit current that can flow in a
given circuit.

Equipment Earthing

In case of insulation failure, the primary object of


connecting all the above points and apparatus to earth
is to release the charge accumulated on them
immediately to earth so that the person coming in
contact may not experience electric shock.

Equipment Earthing(Cont.)
The other object is that a heavy current when flows
through the circuit that operates the protective devices
that is fuse or CB, which open the circuit

Max. Value of Earth Resistance to


be achieved
Equipment to be Earthed

Max. Value of Earth


Resistance to be achieved in
Ohms

Large Power Stations

0.5

Major Substations

1.0

Small Substations

2.0

Factories Substations

1.0

Lattice Steel Tower

3.0

Industrial Machine and Equipment 0.5


* The Earth Resistance depends upon the moisture
content in the soil.

Methods of Earthing
Conventional Earthing
Maintenance Free Earthing

Conventional Earthing
The Conventional system of Earthing calls for digging
of a large pit into which a GI pipe or a copper plate is
positioned in the middle layers of charcoal and salt.
It requires maintenance and pouring of water at regular
interval.

Maintenance Free Earthing

It is a new type of earthing system which is Readymade,


standardized and scientifically developed.
Its Benefits are
MAINTENANCE FREE: No need to pour water at
regular interval- except in sandy soil.
CONSISTENCY: Maintain stable and consistent earth
resistance around the year.
MORE SURFACE AREA: The conductive compound
creates a conductive zone, which provides the increased
surface area for peak current dissipation. And also get
stable reference point.

Maintenance Free Earthing(Contd.)


LOW EARTH RESISTANCE: Highly conductive.
Carries high peak current repeatedly.
NO CORROSION:
LONG LIFE.
EASY INSTALLATION.

Methods of Conventional Earthing


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Plate Earthing
Pipe Earthing
Rod Earthing
Strip Earthing
Earthing through Water Mains

Earthing Electrode
The resistance of a ground
electrode has 3 basic
components:
A) The resistance of the ground
electrode itself and the connections
to the electrode.
B) The contact resistance of the
surrounding earth to the electrode.
C) The resistance of the surrounding
body of earth around the ground
Electrode. It consist of three basic components:
1. Earth Wire
2. Connector
3. Electrode

Plate Earthing

In this type of earthing plate either of copper or of


G.I. is buried into the ground at a depth of not less
than 3 meter from the ground level.
The earth plate is embedded in alternative layer of
coke and salts for a minimum thickness of about
15cm.
The earth wire(copper wire for copper plate
earthing and G.I. wire for G.I. plate earthing) is
securely bolted to an earth plate with the help of
bolt nut and washer made of copper, in case of
copper plate earthing and of G.I. in case of G.I.
plate earthing.

PLATE EARTHING

Pipe earthing

Pipe earthing is best form of earthing and it is cheap also in this system
of earthing a GI pipe of 38 mm dia and 2meters length is embedded
vertically in ground to work as earth electrod but the depth depend upon
the soil conditions, there is no hard and fast rule for this.
But the wire is embedded upto the wet soil.
The earth wire are fastened to the top section of the pipe with nut and
bolts.
The pit area arround the GI pipe filled with salt and coal mixture for
improving the soil conditions and efficiency of the earthing system.
It can take heavy leakage current for the same electrode size in
comparison to plate earthing.
The earth wire connection with GI pipes being above the ground level
can be checked for carrying out continuity test as and when desired,
while in plate earthing it is difficult.
In summmer season to have an effective earthing three or four bucket of
water is put through the funnel for better continuity of earthing.

PIPE EARTHING

Procedure for filling up New


Earthing Pit

Step A :
Excavate the earthing pit size 2000 X 2000 X
2500 mm depth. Sprinkle sufficient quantity of
water in the bottom and surrounding walls to
become wetty only.
Fill up the bottom layer of the pit up to 250 mm
height from the bottom by mixture black soft
soil + salt + wooden charcoal pieces. (Fig. I)
Step B :
Prepare the electrode assembly as per Sr. No. - 3
of the drawing and rest the entire Assembly in
the pit as shown in (Fig. II)

Procedure for filling up New


Step C :
Earthing Pit
Collect thin C.R.C. sheet approx 18 to 20 SWG having size
500 mm width 3.5 meter length approx. (Please make joints of
three to four pieces to achieve requirement of 3.5 meter length
(Fig. III-a)
Prepare the Cylindrical Ring from the above sheet by bending
both ends & joining each other. The diameter "D" of the
cylindrical ring shall arrive approx. 1000 mm and height shall
be 500 mm. Collect two pieces of scrap G.I. wire of approx. 8SWG and prepare two lifting round handles (Hooks) on upper
side of the cylindrical ring to facilitate the lifting of the
Cylindrical Ring. (Fig. III-b)
Now wear this cylindrical ring to the electrode pipe of the
electrode assembly such a way that the electrode pipe remains
in the centre of the cylindrical ring. (Fig III-c)

Procedure for filling up New


Earthing Pit
Step D :
Fill up the inner part of the Cylindrical Ring with
Mixture - I ( Homogeneous mixture of Black Soft
Soil.
The remaining part i.e. the Gap between walls of the
pit and outer periphery of the Cylindrical Ring by
Mixture - II. After completing filling work of both the
mixtures up to 500 mm height, proper ramming and
watering is to be done. (Fig. IV)

Procedure for filling up New


Earthing Pit
Step E :
There after lift the Cylindrical ring
by help of two lifting handles
(hooks) and again rest it on the
layer for carrying out filling of 2nd
layer cycle. Again fill up the inner
cylindrical part of the ring by
Mixture - I and outer gap between
walls of the pit & outer Cylindrical
periphery by Mixture - II up to
height of the Cylinder (i.e. 500
mm) (Fig. V)

Procedure for filling up New


Earthing
Pit
Step E :

There after lift the Cylindrical ring by help of two


lifting handles (hooks) and again rest it on the layer
for carrying out filling of 2nd layer cycle. Again fill
up the inner cylindrical part of the ring by Mixture - I
and outer gap between walls of the pit & outer
Cylindrical periphery by Mixture - II up to height of
the Cylinder (i.e. 500 mm) (Fig. V)

Procedure for filling up New


Earthing
Pit
Step F :
Lift the cylindrical ring by lifting handles (hooks) after proper
ramming and watering. Now again place the cylindrical ring
on upper layer and arrange 3rd cycle, subsequently complete
the filling of entire pit. Please see that water content is
minimum 20 %
Fill up upper layer of the pit by crushed rock pieces (Gravel)
size 50 X 35 mm. 1 CMT. approx. to provide insulating layer
to person moving side by the pit, and to prevent reptile
movements subsequently causing hazards.

Earthing System.mp4

Applications

Telecommunication
Transmission
Substations & Power Generations
Transformer Neutral earthing
Lightning Arrestor Earthing
Equipment Body Earthing
Water Treatment Plants
Heavy Industries
College, Hospitals, Banks
Residential Building

THANK YOU