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History of Eugenics

Goals of Stage EUGENICS


Definition
History
Negative And Positive
Ethical Issues
Eugenics Then
Conclusion

and Now

Definition
Eugenics:

from the Greek eugenes


for good birth [Greek] eu- = well
[Greek] -suffix -gens = born so it
is literally mean Well-born

It

is a set of beliefs and practices that


aims at improving the genetic quality
of the human population especially by
the control of human mating

so its basically encourage people with positive


traits to production and discouraging people
with bad traits to reproduction through
sterilization

Eugenics it is the improvement of human


hereditary traits through the promotion of
higher reproduction of more desired people
and traits, and the reduction of reproduction of
less desired people and traits

History

eugenics started with the


ancient Sparta and Rome
In Sparta

In Sparta, newborns were inspected by the


city's elders, who decided the fate of the
infant. If the child was deemed incapable of
living it was usually exposed, the Roman
stated that deformed children would be put
to death

The height of the modern


eugenics movement came in the
late 19th and early 20th century
It was originally developed by
Francis Galton, a cousin of
Charles Darwin, and based upon
Darwins theory of evolution
Their primary effort was
directed toward the criminal,
mentally ill and lower classes,
especially those on welfare,
Galton described his study of
upper class families in which he
observed the qualities of
intellect. leadership and artistic
ability

In early 20th century in America Galtons plan suddenly


seemed far too passive and slow. Then Americas
reaction was to pass laws restricting marriage and
immigration Then others pushed for laws to simply
sterilize those seen as unfit.

In the United States thousands of people were sterilized


against their will under eugenic laws passed in more
than 30 states.

Around midcentury, many American scholars and


scientists thought that it is rational to separate sex
from reproduction and make babies in the laboratory
using only the highest quality of eggs and sperms.

In 1969 Harvard biologist


Jonathan Beckwith and his
colleagues discovered how to
clone a gene. At the same time
Dan Nathans and Hamilton Smith
discovered how to use a type of
molecular scissors called
restriction enzymes to snip insert
and reattach DNA strands in labs.

Advances in reproductive
technology made vision of testtube babies a reality. On July 25
1978 Louise Brown was born
through in vitro fertilization
Combining IVF with new geneticscreening technologies made it
technically possible to reject
embryos with undesirable traits
or select those with desirable
ones.

By the 1860s he had popularized programs of human


improvement through competitions for marriage
partners, where only "best" would marry "best.

Galton spoke of eugenics as the new religion of the


future

He hoped to convert the next generations to the new


scientistic faith that these new converts would establish
eugenics as a universally recognized science.

Improving future generations by encouraging the


best in society to have more children

Culling defectives and degenerates from the population


to promote and preserve the fittest

Positive vs. Negative Eugenics

encouraging vs. restricting reproduction

Positive eugenics

Positive eugenics (Francis Galton): Encourage


people with good genes to have more children
Eugenics is improving living quality and
experience Eugenics, can improve our human
race not only for looking, but also for better
feature such as stronger immune system facing
diseases, better muscle fiber... etc. If it can
improve our living condition, make us survivable
to most environment, and to not be bothered but
diseases, it improves the border line of low
quality life. Farther, it can bring more possible
human desire

Think

of the effort saved if the entire


population was naturally healthy, and
resistant to disease, obesity, and diabetes.
And this could all be accomplished ethically
and without a single death, simply by
discouraging or encouraging the
reproduction of certain people
Think of the effort saved if the entire
population was naturally healthy, and
resistant to disease, obesity, and diabetes.
And this could all be accomplished ethically
and without a single death, simply by
discouraging or encouraging the
reproduction of certain people

It Assesses a Childs Medical Needs


With eugenics parents already know the DNA
makeup of their unborn child and are prepared to
meet his or her future medical needs. There would
not be unnecessary surprises when it comes to
parenting

It Prevents Negative Hereditary Conditions


Engineering the genetic makeup of a child can
eliminate hereditary conditions that lead to
deformities, mental and physical problems. It then
acts as a preemptive protection for the child so
that he or she will no longer worry about inheriting
genetic disorders from his or her ancestry.

It Helps to Control Gender


Because eugenics helps control the gender of
offspring, parents who want to have a male or
female child can do so with precision. This allows
them to have a family gender variety .

It Creates Better Individuals


Studies show that bad behaviors are due to faulty
mental processes found in the brain. By altering
the DNA makeup of babies, these mental processes
can be controlled and help create individuals that
are better versions of themselves kinder, more
generous, hardworking, smarter, etc.

It is a Room for Medical Advancement


What is next? It is always a question for scientific
researchers. But eugenics is an age-old concept
that is yet to be perfected, and it could potentially
become a great frontier for medical innovation.

Negative of Eugenics

Negative

discourage or prevent the


less fit from reproduction,
compulsory sterilization laws
Negative selection: Dont allow bad
genes to be reproduced by Forced
sterilization or abortion Marriage
restrictions

Sterilization in the United States

12 States
enact
Sterilizati
on Laws
by 1914

At one
time or
another
33 States
had
statutes
for
sterilizati
on

It is because it is in the nature of Man to use things


to his own advantage, and Man tends to ignore
others when doing so. Thus a high-minded idea like
"improving all people" becomes "improving my
group," and a natural corollary or improving my
group is at least ignoring other groups, and usually
worse: mistreating or killing other groups. An
admittedly nice idea gets so twisted on the way to
reality that it becomes evil in its applications.
Besides Where does your authority to define what
of my qualities are acceptable and what qualities
need to be prohibited. it's nobody else's call. If it
was up to everybody, nobody would be.

1)

Ethically, it is not ones right of


ownership to decide what trait his child
should have.
2) Human survival needs variety and
eugenics eliminates variety. For example,
a strain of mutation could be a vaccine for
a disease that might later on occur, and
by eliminating that mutation there would
be no way to retrieve it to find the cure.

3)

Eugenics defiles human distinction


and terminates any notion of human
equality and transgenerational
reciprocity.

4)

Breeding who is believed to be better


than others could end up being the
downfall of humans because reducing
the diversity could cost us losing an
allele that may be critical for our survival
as species. It may also cause humans to
have increased vulnerability to disease
and reduced ability to adapt to
environmental change.

Ethical Issues
Case 1:
An HMO (A type of health insurance)requires in utero
screening
The HMO Refuses to cover the birth or care of a
purportedly defective child
Questions:
Is this eugenics?
Are you against this policy?
Who should be making these decisions?

Case 2:
A couple has several embryos stored at an in vitro
fertilization clinic
They want the embryos screened for a panel of
genetic traits before selecting one for
implantation
Questions:
Is this eugenics?
Are you against this policy?
Who should be making these decisions?

Eugenics Then and Now


Then:
Now:

Focus on selective breeding.

Focus on prenatal testing and


screening, genetic counseling, birth
control, in vitro fertilization, and
genetic engineering.

Conclusion
Couples

should have the freedom to


undergo in vitro fertilization and to
select the healthiest embryos even
the best ones it would be an
individual choice not a state choice
Many critics over the years have
argued that eugenics wasnt wrong
rather it was done badly and for the
wrong reasons.