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Made by:

Muzzamil Ali
Taimoor Qadeer

Submitted to:
Teacher Misbah

AGRICULTURE

Contents

What is Agriculture?
Agriculture as a system
Types of Agriculture
Key crops
Livestock farming
Importance of livestock
Farming and environment
Sustainable agriculture

What is agriculture?

Agriculture is a primary industry


concerned with obtaining raw material
from the ground for further processing or
for direct consumption
On the next slide you will be able to see
agriculture as a complex system.

Agriculture As A System

Types of Agriculture

Small scale
subsistance farm

Commercial cash
crop farm

Main crops of pakistan

Wheat
Cotton
Rice
Sugarcane

Wheat

Wheat is a staple food used in the manufacture


of bread and other baked products
In the months of October and December,the
seeds are sprinkled directly on the ground.wheat
does not need a lot of water to survive and
mostly depends on irrigation.the soil must be stiff
loamy or calyey and the land must be flat.the
temperature must be 10-20 C for growth and
25-30 C for harvesting.Wheat is harvested after
3 months and a lot of labour is required for the
job.The chaff has to be seperated from the grain.

Cotton

Cotton is the most widely used fibre in pakistan


and is mostly used to make fertilizers.
Cotton seeds are sown in the monthsof april to
may.the first irrigation is done in june and the
second irrigation is done in august.the bolls
ripen in october. Cotton needs a temperature of
about 25-35C for harvesting. The soil must be
medium loam and levelled. About 1000 mm of
rain is required for optimum growth.After
picking, the bolls are transported to the mills
where the seeds are seperated from the lint.

Rice

Rice is normally grown on a large scale for


commercial puposes and most of it is exported to
other countries
Initially, rice seeds are sown in nurseries, and are
transplanted in the fields when the plant is about 9
inches high.heavy rainfall is needed to flood the
fields.the land must be levelled and the soil must be
loamy or clayey.the fields are drained only when the
rice is ripe.a temperature of about 20-30C is
required for growth and threshing.threshing is
usually done by machines.the husks are used for
making cardboard and other products.

Sugar cane

This is an important crop as sugar


and gur are extracted from it.
In april,stalks of about 30 cm are planted.the quality
of the crop depends on the use of fertilizers and
irrigation.normally,the crop grows at the temperature
of about 25-35C and the soil must be loam and
nutritious. The crop can rise upto 7 feet and can be
ratooned.with this way, you can make 2-3
successive harvests from the crop.the canes are
sent to the mills quickly to prevent loss of the sugar
content. Bagasse and mollasses are the byproducts
of the crop.

Nomadic livestock:
The nomads in
balauchistan and desert
areas practice
subsistance livestock
farming.
They move from place
to place in search of
food and water . Their
animals provide them
with food and can carry
their loads.if they find a
grazing land or water
source, they stay and
establish a temporary
settlement.

Transhumance:
This is a system of
livestock in which the
animals are kept in
pastures high up in the
mountains during the
summer.when the
winter strikes, the
animals are brought
down to low level areas
where the temperature
is tolerable.
This system is commen
in the northern areas.

Settled livestock farming

This is practiced in the areas of punjab


and sindh
The animals are kept for their meat and
other products.this is defined as a
system in the
following figure:

Commercial livestock
farming

This is practiced either by private owners


or by
government and
military farms.
these farms are
present in
Islamabad,
Karachi and
Quetta.

Importance of sustainable
livestock

Farming and the


environment

How to ensure sustainable


Agriculture?