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Traditional

games
Congkak
Wau bulan

Wau bulan
Wau bulan (Jawi: ) is an intricately designed Malaysian moon-kite (normally
with floral motifs) that is traditionally flown by men in the Malaysianstate of Kelantan.
It is one of Malaysia's national symbols, some others being the kris and hibiscus.
The reverse side of the fifty-cent coin of Malaysia (1989 series) features an
intricately decorated wau bulan with a hummer on top. [1]The logo of Malaysia Airlines
(MAS) is based on the wau kucing (cat kite).
There are many types of wau in Malaysia, each with its own specialty. Wau kucing
(cat kite) and wau merak (peacock kite) are some of the variants.

Characteristics
Wau bulan got its name from the crescent moon-like shape of its lower section
(bulan means "moon" in Bahasa Malaysia). Given the right colour, wau bulan
apparently resembles a rising crescent moon when flown.
The size of wau bulan is bigger than any other Malaysian traditional kite. The typical
size is 2.5 meters in width and 3.5 meters in length. This makes the decorations
painted on the kite's body to be visible when it is flown high in the air. To make it
more distinctive, wau bulan is normally decorated with large, strong-coloured
patterns.

Congkak(History of congkak)
The oldest mancala game boards were found in a ruined fort of Roman Egypt and date back to the 4th century
AD. The game was likely introduced to Southeast Asia by Indian or Arab traders in the 15th century.
It is believed to have spread throughout Malay world through merchants viaMalacca, an important trading post
at that time. In the early days, it was thought that this game was for the king and family and palace residents,
however later it spread to the general population of the kingdom. Beside the Malays, the IndianPeranakan also
enjoy playing Congkak.In Java, the term "dakon stone" refers to the similarly pitmarked stones from the
bronze-iron age period of Indonesia. These stones have rows of 4 or 5 cup-shaped holes and two holes at
each end, a formation which has much in common with that of the similarly named game in Java. This
prehistoric dakon stones is unrelated to the game and were probably employed in ceremonies to propitiate
ancestors. Such stones can be found around Java.
The second series Malaysian Ringgit 10 sen coin has a Congkak board on the reverse in recognition of the
long history of congkak in Malaysia.

Overview

The Sungka board has fourteen holes in two sets of seven (some have ten holes in two sets of five, some
have eighteen holes in two sets of nine), plus an additional bigger hole for each player. Each player controls
the seven holes on their side of the board, and their score is the number of seeds in their right-hand big hole
called storehouse. In Indonesia, the holes are called anak ("child"), while the larger store holes are called
indung ("mother").
A total of 98 pieces are used in the two sets of seven board version. In Southeast Asia, cowrie shells and
tamarind seeds are the most common.Seven seeds are placed in each small hole called 'houses' except for
the players' storehouse. The objective of the game is to capture more seeds in the storehouse than one's
opponent.

Rules
The main method of play has rules as described below.Both players begin simultaneously by scooping up all the seeds in any house on their side. Each
drops a seed into the next house and continues clockwise depositing one seed into every house thereafter. A player drops a seed into his storehouse
each time he passes it but does not deposit any into his opponent's storehouse.How the game continues, depends on where the last seed of each
scoop is deposited.If the seed drops into the players own storehouse: the player scoops up the seeds from any of his houses and distributes them in
the houses round the board but not in his opponent's storehouse.If the seed drops into a house (on either side of the board) containing seed: The player
scoops up all the seeds in that house and continues distributing them as described above.If the seed drops into the players house which is without
seeds: The player is entitled to collect the seeds in his opponent's house directly opposite his own. These seeds collected from his opponent's house
together with his last seed are deposited in his own storehouse. If the opponent's 'house' opposite his own is empty, he deposits only his last seed in his
own storehouse. He forfeits his turn and stops playing. It is the opponent's turn now to distribute the seeds.If the seed drops into an empty house
belonging to the opponent: the player forfeits his turn and stops playing. He also forfeits his seeds and leaves it in the opponent's house. It is the
opponent's turn now to distribute the seeds.The first round ends when a player has no more seeds in his house. The remaining seeds are awarded to
his opponent.Play resumes in the second round with players redistributing seeds from their own storehouse to their own houses. Beginning from left to
right, seven seeds are placed in each house. If a player does not have sufficient seeds to fill his own houses, the remaining houses are left empty and
are considered 'burnt'. The leftover seeds are deposited into his own storehouse. The opponent deposits excess seeds he has won into his own
storehouse.The loser gets to start the second round. Play is continued as before but players will bypass 'burnt houses' for instance no seeds are to be
dropped into these houses. If a seed is accidentally dropped into a 'burnt house', it is confiscated and stored in the opponent's 'storehouse'.Play
continues until one player loses all his 'houses' or concedes defeat.

Etymology

The word congkak is believed to originate from old Malay "congak", meaning "
mental calculation"which is mainly practiced in this game. It is regarded that an efficient player
who mentally calculates a few steps in advance will have an advantage in collecting points to
win the game.
The word congkak or congklak also means cowrie shells, used in the game.

Images for wau bulan and congkak

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