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Project Scheduling: Networks,

Duration Estimation,
and Critical Path
Chapter 9

9-1

Project Scheduling Terms

Successors
Predecessors
Network diagram
Serial activities
Concurrent activities

Merge activities
Burst activities
Node
Path
Critical Path

B
D

C
9-2

Network Diagrams
Show
interdependence

Help
schedule
resources

Facilitate
communication
Determine project
completion

Show
start &
finish
dates

Identify
critical
activities
9-3

AOA Vs. AON

The same mini-project is shown with activities on
arc
B

F
C

and activities on node.

E

D
B

F
C

9-4

Node Labels
Early
Start
Activity
Float
Late
Start

ID
Number

Early
Finish

Activity Descriptor
Activity
Duration

Late
Finish

9-5

Duration Estimation Methods

Past experience
Expert opinion
Mathematical derivation Beta distribution
Most likely (m)
Most pessimistic (b)
Most optimistic (a)

b a
Activity Variance =

a 4m b
Activity Duration = TE
6
9-6

1. Sketch the network described in the table.

2. Determine the expected duration and variance of each
activity.

--

15

13

16

19

14

18

22

Y, X

12

14

16

13

10

14

T, V

11

14

19
9-7

Constructing the Critical Path

Forward pass an additive move through the
network from start to finish
Backward pass a subtractive move through
the network from finish to start
Critical path the longest path from end to end
which determines the shortest project length
9-8

Rules for Forward/Backward Pass

Forward Pass Rules (ES & EF)
ES + Duration = EF
EF of predecessor = ES of successor
Largest preceding EF at a merge point becomes EF
for successor

Backward Pass Rules (LS & LF)

LF Duration = LS
LS of successor = LF of predecessor
Smallest succeeding LS at a burst point becomes LF
for predecessor
9-9

A

--

11

D, F

E, G

1. Sketch the network

described in the table.
2. Determine the ES,
LS, EF, LF, and slack
of each activity

9-10

Project ABC can be completed more efficiently if
A(3)

A1(1)

B(6)

A2(1)
B1(2)

ABC=12 days

C(9)

ABC=18 days

A3(1)
B2(2)
C1(3)

B3(2)
C2(3)

C3(3)
9-11

Hammock Activities
Used as summaries for subsets of activities
0 A 5

5 B 15

15 C 18

0 5

5 10 15

15 3 18

0 Hammock 18
0
Useful with a complex
project or one that has
a shared budget

18

18

9-12