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Essay Writing

Class Five
Taught by
Fazil Munir BA JD Esq

Todays Lesson
Body paragraphs (AKA supporting

Body paragraphs
Goal: CONVINCE your reader that
your thesis is correct, using specific
facts, examples and personal
Body paragraphs ________ the thesis.

Each body paragraph develops one

main point (topic sentence) that
supports the thesis of the essay

What is the most important sentence in

the paragraph
Topic Sentence
It is the blueprint for the paragraph.

How many sentences in a body

Each sentence must support the topic
sentence of the paragraph (just as the
paragraphs support the thesis).

How many supporting paragraphs?


What order should they be in?

In chronological order,
In order of importance.
In some other logical order

Chronological Order
Thesis: Unfortunately, my senior prom was a disaster.
Topic sentence #1: I thought I had everything
arranged well in advance of the night of the prom.
Topic sentence #2: My date was forgiving enough
until we arrived fifteen minutes late at the four star
French restaurant where I had made reservations
months in advance.
Topic sentence #3: By the time we arrived at the
prom, my date was barely speaking to me.
What kind of an essay is this?
Narrative essay

Order of Importance
(tip: similar words)
Thesis: The daily newspaper provides a valuable source
of information. Not only does it report the news, but it
provides valuable background information that helps us
understand how our world works, and it connects us to
our community and culture.
Topic sentence #1: Reading the daily news makes
us better citizens by informing us about international,
national, and local news.
Topic sentence #2: Almost as important as the news is
the background information the newspaper supplies
in order to give the news an understandable context.
Topic sentence #3: Most importantly, the newspaper
offers us a vivid connection to our community.

Thesis and Topic Sentences

Thesis: This distinguished man (Colin Powell) is an
excellent role model for African-American men.
Topic sentence #1: Colin Powells military career
shows African-American males that they can succeed
in a traditionally white institution like the armed
Topic sentence #2: Colin Powell serves as an
example of the power a strong family has to anchor
us in enduring values.
Topic sentence #3: After retiring from the military,
General Powell has taken his place as a senior
statesman, a new role for an African-American male.

Transitions/Bridge Between
Thesis: As I drove my son to school, I realized
how perfectly my new minivan meets my needs
as a parent.
Topic sentence #1: First, the exterior of the
van offers me style, safety, and convenience.
Topic sentence #2: Not only does the
exterior of the new minivan perfectly suit my
needs as a parent, but the interior is designed for
the drivers safety and comfort.
Topic sentence #3: Finally, the vans
performance features make it a pleasure to drive.

Avoid topic sentences that dont support the
Avoid topic sentences that are too broad or
too narrow to be developed in a paragraph.
Avoid body paragraphs that do not use
transitions between paragraphs.
Avoid body paragraphs that are not
presented in logical order (if possible).
For example, most important to least important

Thesis statement: Pollution, waste and climate
change are threatening freshwater supplies.
Topic 1: Fresh water is being polluted by dirty
water from several sources.
Topic 2: People are wasting fresh water
Topic 3: Changes in global weather patterns have
affected supplies of fresh water.

Form the missing topic sentence
Page 100

Each should be unified.

The first sentence of a body
paragraph can be a topic sentence
OR it can be a bridge

Threats to Our Ocean

answer in your own words.
Why do fish companies do things that
damage the ocean?
How many problems are there with
overfishing? What are they?
How does fish farming damage the ocean?
How many problems are there with bottom
trawling? What are they?
Which topic sentence has a

Bridges and Topic Sentences

Overfishing is a major problem.
Topic Sentence

Some people think that fish farming is the

answer to overfishing in the ocean.
Topic Sentence with a Bridge/smooth transition

Bottom trawling is a term that describes

catching fish at the bottom of the ocean.
Topic Sentence

Who Owns the Water? Answer in

your own words
1. The author thinks that the ________
have more right to the water than
the _______ or the _________.
The rich
The people who live nearby

Answer in your own words

Why do the people who live near the
river want the water?
Why does the author think the
farmer need the water more than the
people who live near the river. Why?
Why do the rich people want the
Why does the author think that
farmers have more right to the water
than the rich people?

Paragraph 1
Farmers need the water more than the
people who live near the river.
Explains how the two groups use the water
Food is more important than recreation.

Paragraph 2
Farmers have more right to the water than
the rich people
Explains how they use the water (example)
The rich are supported by the farmers.

How do we support topic sentence?

With details, facts.
Topic Sentence
One cause of the parking problem is the increase in the
number of students.

Over the past 40 years, since the existing parking structures
were first built, campus enrollment has almost doubled.
According our campus records, we have over 10,000 students;
however, we have only 5,000 parking spaces.

Analysis (needed for ALL types of evidence)

Explain the connection between the facts and the topic
Example: When we look at the numbers, we can see that the
growth of our campus has created the current parking crisis:

How else do we support the Topic

Topic Sentence: Fad diets are dangerous
Examples (A specific incident)
Examples of people who died after trying a fad

Personal Experience
A story of someone you know and describe the
process of how he got sick.

50% of people who try these diets die/ get sick.

(Need analysis for all of the above)

Ice Cream Sandwich

Topic sentence
Support (Examples, Personal
experience, facts, etc)
Analysis/concluding sentence

Write your own body paragraph

(5 sentences)
What is the thesis?
Water in its 3 states- vapor, liquid,
and solid, allows us not only to live
but to enjoy living

Write your own essay!

1. A Good Health Club (Example)

_____ In addition to a modern, wellmaintained facility, a good club will boast the
latest in exercise equipment and classes.
_____ A good health club can be recognized
by examining its component parts: facilities,
programs, and staff.
_____ One of the most obvious qualities of a
good health club is its facilities.
_____ What makes a good club outstanding,
however, is its staff and amenities.

2. Corporal Punishment
_____ Corporal punishment aggravates antisocial
_____ Finally, corporal punishment instills fear rather
than respect.
_____ Corporal punishment is counterproductive
because it aggravates antisocial behavior in the
student, breaks down communication between
teacher and student, and instills fear rather than
_____ In addition to aggravating antisocial behavior,
corporal punishment blocks the opportunity for
communication between teacher and student.

How to Break Off a Relationship

_____ First, I try not to break up with a boyfriend
unless Im sure the relationship cant be saved.
_____ I try to follow the guidelines I learned as a
child in Sunday school: I try to treat others the
way I would want to be treated myself.
_____ Once its clear that a breakup is inevitable,
I try to tell my soon-to-be ex-boyfriend as quickly
and kindly as I can.
_____ Even though following this process may
take longer than the cruel and quick method, the
results are worth it.

An Admirable Man
_____ Not only was my Dad honest, but he
was also the hardest-working man Ive ever
_____ My father showed me the meaning of
_____ By setting a good example for me,
my father showed me the meaning of
honesty, hard work, and generosity.
_____ My father was also an enormously
generous man.

Repetition in Teletubbies
_____ First, the characters themselves, Tinky Winky,
Dipsy, Laa-Laa, and Po, are four variations on a theme.
_____ Not only are the Teletubbies repetitions of one
another, but sequences of actions are repeated within
each show.
_____ The show is Teletubbies, a British show aimed
specifically at toddlers, and the repetition I noticed is
no accident. Teletubbies uses repetition in a number of
ways to appeal to toddlers and help them learn.
_____ Similarly, the repetition of sequences from
previous shows provides predictability, familiarity, and