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Suprihatin

DEPARTEMEN TEKNOLOGI INDUSTRI

PERTANIAN IPB

2004

When undertaking any survey, it is essential

that you obtain data from sample (people) that

are as representative as possible of the group

that you are studying. Even with the perfect

equipment (questionnaire), your survey data

will only be regarded as useful if it is

considered that your respondents are typical of

the population as a whole. For this reason, an

awareness of the principles of sampling is

essential to the implementation of most

methods of research, both quantitative and

qualitative.

2

units under investigation

about each member of a population

only about some members of a "population

units from which the sample is taken. It should

be comprehensive, complete and up-to-date.

Examples of sampling frame: Electoral Register;

Postcode Address File; telephone book

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Probability/Non-Probability Sampling

member of the population has an equal chance

of being selected.

items or units have a greater, but unknown,

chance than others of selection.

Probability Samples :

sample. They are:

Simple random

Systematic

Random route

Stratified

Multi-stage cluster sampling

research problem, the availability of a good

sampling frame, money, time, desired level of

accuracy in the sample and data collection

methods.

Each has its advantages, each its

disadvantages.

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isn't that simple and it isn't done at random, in

the sense of "haphazardly".

Characteristics:

Each person, item, or unit has same chance

as any other of being selected

Suitable where population is relatively small

and where sampling frame is complete and

up-to-date

Procedure:

Give each case a unique number, starting at one

Decide on the required sample size

Select that many numbers from a table of random

numbers, using calculator or computer

statistics textbooks) e.g.

92941 04999 77422 25992 27372

94157 43252 83266 47196 94045

48135 34237 46293 46178 50110

78907 37586 50940 88094 28209

82843 43383 32561 62108 46076

Decide on a pattern of movement through table and stick to it, e.g.

numbers from every second column and every row. If a number comes

up twice or a number is selected which is larger than population

number, discard it.

2. Systematic sampling

of selecting random numbers from tables, you

move through list (sample frame) picking every

nth name.

FRACTION by dividing population size by

required sample size. E.g. for a population of

500 and a sample of 100, the sampling fraction

is 1/5 i.e. you will select one person, item or

unit out of every five in the population.

Random number needs to be used only to

decide on starting point. With the sampling

fraction of 1/5, the starting point must be

within the first 5 people in your list

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by particular characteristics arising in the

sampling frame at regular units).

An example of this would occur if you used a

sampling frame of adult residents in an area

composed of predominantly couples or young

families. If this list was arranged: Husband / Wife /

Husband / Wife etc. and if every tenth person was to

be interviewed, there would be an increased chance

of males being selected.

sampling households, shops, garages and other

premises in urban areas

frame (usually electoral register) as a starting

point. Interviewer then given instructions to

identify further addresses by taking alternate

left- and right-hand turns at road junctions and

calling at every nth address (shop, garage etc.)

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Advantages:

May be saving in time

Bias may be reduced because interviewer

has to call at clearly defined addresses - not

able to choose

Problems:

Characteristics of particular areas (e.g.

poor / rich) may mean that sample is not

representative

Open to abuse by interviewer because

difficult to check that instructions fully

carried out

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4. Stratified Sampling

divided into "strata" (groups or categories).

Within each stratum, a simple random sample

or systematic sample is selected.

ensure that a sample of 5 students from a

group of 50 contains both male and female

students in same proportions as in the full

population (i.e. the group of 50), we first divide

that population into male and female. In this

case, there are 22 male students and 28

females. To work out the number of males and

females in the sample........

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No. of females in sample = (5 / 50) x 28 = 2.8

We obviously can't interview .2 of a person or .

8 of a person, and have to "round" the

numbers. Therefore we choose 2 males and 3

females in the sample. These would be selected

using simple random or systematic sample

methods.

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several different samples. It does so in such a

way that cost of final interviewing is minimized.

Initially large areas selected then progressively

smaller areas within larger area are sampled.

Use method of selecting individuals from these

selected smallest areas.

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Non-Probability Samples

probability method of sampling, such as in

random sampling. For example, there is not a

complete sampling frame available for certain

groups of the population e.g. the elderly;

people who are attending a football match;

people who shop in a particular part of town.

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Cheaper

Used when sampling frame is not available

Useful when population is so widely dispersed that

cluster sampling would not be efficient

Often used in exploratory studies, e.g. for hypothesis

generation

Some research not interested in working out what

proportion of population gives a particular response

but rather in obtaining an idea of the range of

responses on ideas that people have.

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1. Purposive Sampling

the researcher subjectively. The researcher

attempts to obtain sample that appears to

him/her to be representative of the population

and will usually try to ensure that a range from

one extreme to the other is included.

because their pattern has in the past provided

good idea of outcomes for whole electorate

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2. Quota Sampling

research. Interviewers are required to find

cases with particular characteristics. They are

given quota of particular types of people to

interview and the quota are organized so that

final sample should be representative of

population.

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Stages:

to be representative, e.g. age

population and set quota accordingly. E.g. if

20% of population is between 20 and 30,

and sample is to be 1,000 then 200 of

sample (20%) will be in this age group

several characteristics (e.g. age, sex,

marital status) are used simultaneously.

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choose who they like (within above criteria)

and may therefore select those who are easiest

to interview, so bias can result. Also,

impossible to estimate accuracy (because not

random sample)

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3. Convenience sampling

stop anybody in the street who is prepared to

stop, or when you wander round a business, a

shop, a restaurant, a theatre or whatever,

asking people you meet whether they will

answer your questions.

who are simply available in a convenient way to

the researcher. There is no randomness and

the likelihood of bias is high. You can't draw

any meaningful conclusions from the results

you obtain.

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particularly for students or others with restricted time

and resources, and can legitimately be used provided

its limitations are clearly understood and stated.

students are often tempted to use the word "random"

when describing their sample where they have

stopped people in the street, as they see it "at

random". You should avoid using the word "random"

when describing anything to do with sampling unless

you are absolutely certain that you selected

respondents from a sampling frame using truly

random methods.

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4. Snowball sampling

few potential respondents and then ask

them whether they know of anybody with

the same characteristics that you are

looking for in your research. For example, if

you wanted to interview a sample of

vegetarians / cyclists / people with a

particular disability / people who support a

particular political party etc., your initial

contacts may well have knowledge (through

e.g. support group) of others.

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5. Self-selection

Respondents themselves decide that they

would like to take part in your survey.

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Non-Response

be included:

Some will be uncontactable

Some will be uninterviewable

problems:

Bias

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Sample Size

Depends on:

Methodology selected

Degree of accuracy required for the

study (how much error can be tolerated)

Extent to which there is variation in the

population with regard to key

characteristics of the study

Likely response rate (which itself will

depend on sampling method selected)

Time and money available

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A reasonably large sample selected at

random from a large population will be, on

average, representative of the

characteristics of that population.

Numbers

Large groups of data show a higher degree

of stability than smaller ones; there is a

tendency for variations in the data to be

cancelled out by each other.

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Mistake - e.g. 31 x 3 = 96

"Divergence from accuracy"

what is acceptable as a true figure and what is

taken for an estimate or approximation

in the measurement and use of particular

statistics - depends on type of data being

measured and uses to which it will be put.

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true figures e.g.

A student may expect to spend 10 per week

in the bar, but actually spends 12.50.

Absolute error = 2.50

week in the bar, but spends 22.50. Again

absolute error = 2.50

original estimate; in the second case, error =

12.5%

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used: Relative error is absolute error divided by

estimate, often expressed as a percentage:

figure) x 100

As in above examples:

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