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Contemporary theories

of motivation

Theory X and Theory Y

Douglas McGregor in his book, "The Human Side of
Enterprise" published in 1960 has examined theories on
behaviour of individuals at work, and he has formulated
two models which he calls Theory X and Theory Y.

Theory X
The average person dislikes work and will avoid it
he/she can.
Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of
punishment to work towards organisational objectives.
The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid
responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and wants
security above all else.

Theory Y
Effort in work is as natural as work and play.
People will apply self-control and self-direction in the
pursuit of
organizational objectives, without external control or the
threat of punishment.
Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards
with their achievement.
People usually accept and often seek responsibility.

Goal setting theory

In 1960s, Edwin Locke put forward the Goal-setting
theory of motivation. This theory states that goal setting
is essentially linked to task performance. It states that
specific and challenging goals along with appropriate
feedback contribute to higher and better task

The important features of goalsetting theory :

The willingness to work towards attainment of goal is main source
of job motivation. Clear, particular and difficult goals are greater
motivating factors than easy, general and vague goals.
Specific and clear goals lead to greater output and better
performance. Unambiguous, measurable and clear goals
accompanied by a deadline for completion avoids
Goals should be realistic and challenging. This gives an
individual a feeling of pride and triumph when he attains them,
and sets him up for attainment of next goal. The more challenging
the goal, the greater is the reward generally and the more is the
passion for achieving it.

The important features of goalsetting theory :

Better and appropriate feedback of results directs the
employee behaviour and contributes to higher
performance than absence of feedback.
Employees participation in goal is not always
Participation of setting goal, however, makes goal
more acceptable and leads to more involvement.

Goal setting theory has certain

eventualities such as:
Self-efficiency- Self-efficiency is the individuals selfconfidence and faith that he has potential of performing
the task.
Higher the level of self-efficiency, greater will be the
efforts put in by the individual when they face
challenging tasks. While, lower the level of self-efficiency,
less will be the efforts put in by the individual or he might
even quit while meeting challenges.

Goal setting theory has certain

as:theory assumes that the
Goal commitment- such
Goal setting
individual is
committed to the goal and will not leave the goal.
The goal commitment is dependent on the following
i.Goals are made open, known and broadcasted.
ii.Goals should be set-self by individual rather than
iii.Individuals set goals should be consistent with the
organizational goals
and vision.

Advantages of Goal Setting

Goal setting theory is a technique used to raise
incentives for employees to complete work quickly
and effectively.
Goal setting leads to better performance by increasing
motivation and efforts, but also through increasing
and improving the feedback quality.

Limitations of Goal Setting

At times, the organizational goals are in conflict with the
managerial goals. Goal conflict has a detrimental effect
on the performance if it motivates incompatible action
Very difficult and complex goals stimulate riskier
If the employee lacks skills and competencies to
perform actions essential for goal, then the goal-setting
can fail and lead to undermining of performance.
There is no evidence to prove that goal-setting improves
job satisfaction.

Self efficacy theory

Self-efficacy theory was originated from Social Cognitive theory
by Alberta Bendura.
Self-efficacy is the belief that one has the power to produce
that effect by completing a given task or activity related to
that competency.
Self-efficacy relates to a persons perception of their
ability to reach a goal.
It is the belief that one is capable of performing in a certain
manner to attain certain goals.
It is the expectation that one can master a situation, and
produce a positive outcome.

Major concepts of self efficacy

Banduras Social Cognitive Model says that there are 3
factors that influence self-efficacy:
2.Environment, and
3.personal/cognitive factors.

Reinforcement theory
Reinforcement theory of motivation was proposed by BF
Skinner and his associates.
Reinforcement theory is the process of shaping
behavior by controlling the consequences of the
behavior. In reinforcement theory a combination of
rewards and/or punishments is used to reinforce desired
behavior or extinguish unwanted behaviour.

Reinforcement theory
The managers use the following methods for controlling
the behaviour of the employees:
Positive Reinforcement- This implies giving a positive
response when an individual shows positive and
required behaviour.
Negative Reinforcement- This implies rewarding an
employee by removing negative / undesirable
consequences. Both positive and negative
reinforcement can be used for increasing desirable /
required behaviour.

Reinforcement theory
Punishment- It implies removing positive
consequences so as to lower the probability of repeating
undesirable behaviour in future.
Extinction- It implies absence of reinforcements. In
other words, extinction implies lowering the probability
of undesired behaviour by removing reward for that kind
of behaviour..

Equity theory
Equity theory was a result of the work of J. Stacy Adams
and states that when individuals determine whether the
compensation they receive is fair compared to their coworkers' compensation, any perceived inequity will affect
their motivation.
To apply this theory successfully it is important to address
the employees perceptions. This can be accomplished first
by recognizing and anticipating that inequities can and will
exist. It is then important to communicate clear
evaluations of any rewards given and an appraisal of the
performance on which these rewards are based.

Expectancy theory
The expectancy theory was proposed by Victor Vroom of Yale
School of Management in 1964. Vroom stresses and focuses on
outcomes, and not on needs unlike Maslow and Herzberg. The
theory states that the intensity of a tendency to perform in a
particular manner is dependent on the intensity of an
expectation that the performance will be followed by a definite
outcome and on the appeal of the outcome to the individual.
Vroom was of view that employees consciously decide whether
to perform or not at the job. This decision solely depended on
the employees motivation level which in turn depends on three
factors of expectancy, valence and instrumentality.

Expectancy theory
The Expectancy theory states that employees motivation is an
outcome of how much an individual wants a reward (Valence), the
assessment that the likelihood that the effort will lead to expected
performance (Expectancy) and the belief that the performance will
lead to reward (Instrumentality). In short, Valence is the
significance associated by an individual about the expected
outcome. It is an expected and not the actual satisfaction that an
employee expects to receive after achieving the goals.
Expectancy is the faith that better efforts will result in better
performance. Expectancy is influenced by factors such as
possession of appropriate skills for performing the job, availability of
right resources, availability of crucial information and getting the
required support for completing the job.

Expectancy theory

Instrumentality is the faith that if you perform well,

then a valid outcome will be there. Instrumentality is
affected by factors such as believe in the people who
decide who receives what outcome, the simplicity of the
process deciding who gets what outcome, and clarity of
relationship between performance and outcomes. Thus,
the expectancy theory concentrates on the following
three relationships:
Effort-performance relationship: What is the likelihood
that the individuals effort be recognized in his
performance appraisal?
Performance-reward relationship: It talks about the
extent to which the employee believes that getting a

Advantages of the Expectancy

It is based on self-interest individual who want
to achieve maximum satisfaction and who wants
to minimize dissatisfaction.
This theory stresses upon the expectations and
perception; what is real and actual is immaterial.
It emphasizes on rewards or pay-offs.
It focuses on psychological extravagance where
final objective of individual is to attain maximum
pleasure and least pain.

Limitations of the Expectancy

The expectancy theory seems to be idealistic because
quite a few individuals perceive high degree correlation
between performance and rewards.
The application of this theory is limited as reward is not
directly correlated with performance in many
organizations. It is related to other parameters also such
as position, effort, responsibility, education, etc.

Implications of the Expectancy

The managers can correlate the preferred outcomes to the aimed
performance levels.
The managers must ensure that the employees can achieve the
aimed performance levels.
The deserving employees must be rewarded for their exceptional
The reward system must be fair and just in an organization.
Organizations must design interesting, dynamic and challenging jobs.
The employees motivation level should be continually assessed
through various techniques such as questionnaire, personal
interviews, etc.