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Ultrasonic Testing

Part 2
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Ultrasonic Testing techniques


Pulse Echo
Through Transmission
Transmission with Reflection

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Pulse Echo Technique


Single probe sends
and receives sound
Gives an indication of
defect depth and
dimensions
Not fail safe

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Defect Position
B

No indication from defect A (wrong orientation)


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Through Transmission Technique


Transmitting and
receiving probes on
opposite sides of
the specimen

Tx

Rx

Presence of defect
indicated by
reduction in
transmission signal
No indication of
defect location
Fail safe method

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Copyright 2004 WI Ltd

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Through Transmission Technique


Advantages
Less attenuation
No probe ringing
No dead zone
Orientation does not
matter

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Disadvantages
Defect not located
Defect cant be
identified
Vertical defects dont
show
Must be automated
Need access to both
surfaces
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Transmission with Reflection


T

Also known as:


Tandem Technique or
Pitch and Catch Technique
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Ultrasonic Pulse
A short pulse of electricity is applied to a
piezo-electric crystal
The crystal begins to vibration increases
to maximum amplitude and then decays
Maximum

10% of
Maximum

Pulse length

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Pulse Length
The longer the pulse, the more
penetrating the sound
The shorter the pulse the better the
sensitivity and resolution

Short pulse, 1 or 2 cycles


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Long pulse 12 cycles


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Ideal Pulse Length

5 cycles for weld testing


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The Sound Beam


Dead Zone
Near Zone or Fresnel Zone
Far Zone or Fraunhofer Zone

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The Sound Beam


NZ

FZ

Main
Beam

Intensity
varies
Exponential Decay

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Distance

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The side lobes has multi


minute main beams
Two identical defects may
give different amplitudes of
signals

Near
Zone

Side Lobes

The main beam or the centre


beam has the highest
intensity of sound energy
Main Lobe

Any reflector hit by the main


beam will reflect the high
amount of energy

Main Beam

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Sound Beam
Near Zone
Thickness
measurement
Detection of defects
Sizing of large
defects only

Far Zone
Thickness
measurement
Defect detection
Sizing of all defects

Near zone length as small as possible

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Near Zone
2

D
Near Zone
4
V

D f
Near Zone
4V
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Near Zone
What is the near zone length of a 5MHz
compression probe with a crystal diameter
of 10mm in steel?
2

D f
Near Zone
4V
2
10 5,000,000

4 5,920,000
21.1mm
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Near Zone
2

D
Near Zone
4

D f

4V

The bigger the diameter the bigger the


near zone
The higher the frequency the bigger the
near zone
The lower the velocity the bigger the near
zone
Should large diameter crystal probes have a high
or low frequency?
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Which of the above probes has the longest Near Zone ?


1 M Hz
1 M Hz

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5 M Hz

5 M Hz

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Near Zone
2

D
Near Zone
4

D f

4V

The bigger the diameter the bigger the


near zone
The higher the frequency the bigger the
near zone
The lower the velocity the bigger the near
zone
Should large diameter crystal probes have a high
or low frequency?
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Beam Spread
In the far zone sound pulses spread out
as they move away from the crystal

/2

K
KV
Sine
or
2 D
Df
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Beam Spread

K
KV
Sine
or
2 D
Df
Edge,K=1.22
20dB,K=1.08
6dB,K=0.56
Beam axis
or Main Beam
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Beam Spread

K
KV
Sine
or
2 D
Df
The bigger the diameter the smaller the
beam spread
The higher the frequency the smaller
the beam spread
Which has the larger beam spread, a compression
or a shear wave probe?
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Beam Spread
What is the beam spread of a 10mm,5MHz
compression wave probe in steel?

KV
Sine
2
Df
1.08 5920

5000 10
o
0.1278
7.35
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Which of the above probes has the Largest Beam


Spread ?
1 M Hz
1 M Hz

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5 M Hz

5 M Hz

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Beam Spread

K
KV
Sine
or
2 D
Df
The bigger the diameter the smaller the
beam spread
The higher the frequency the smaller
the beam spread
Which has the larger beam spread, a compression
or a shear wave probe?
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Testing close to side walls

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Sound at an Interface
Sound will be either transmitted across
or reflected back
Reflected

Interface

How much is reflected and


transmitted depends upon the
relative acoustic impedance of
the 2 materials

Transmitted

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The Phenomenon of Sound


REFLECTION
REFRACTION
DIFFRACTION

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The Phenomenon of Sound


REFLECTION
REFRACTION
DIFFRACTION

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Law of Reflection
Angle of Incidence = Angle of Reflection

60o

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60o

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Inclined incidence(not at 90o )


Incident

Transmitted
The sound is refracted due to differences in
sound velocity in the 2 DIFFERENT materials
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REFRACTION
Only occurs when:
The incident angle is other than 0
30
Water

Steel

Water

Steel

Steel

Steel
Refracted

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REFRACTION
Only occurs when:
The incident angle is other than 0
The Two Materials has different
VELOCITIES
30

30

Steel

Water

Steel

Steel
65
30

No Refraction
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Refracted
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Snells Law
Normal

Incident

Material 2

Material 1

Refracted

Sine I
Vel in Material 1

Sine R Vel in Material 2


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Snells Law
C

Sine I Vel in Material 1

Sine R Vel in Material 2

20

Perspex

Sine 20
2730

Sine 48.3 5960

Steel

0.4580 0.4580

48.3
C

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Snells Law
C

Sine I Vel in Material 1

Sine R Vel in Material 2

15

Sine 15 2730

Sine R 5960

Perspex
Steel
34.4
C

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5960
SinR Sin15
2730

SinR 0.565
R 34.4
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Snells Law
C

20

Perspex
Steel
48.3
24

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C
S
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Snells Law
C

When an incident beam of sound


approaches an interface of two
different materials:
REFRACTION occurs

Perspex
Steel

There may be more than one waveform


transmitted into the second material,
example: Compression and Shear

C
C

When a waveform changes


into another waveform:
MODE CHANGE

SS
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Snells Law
If the angle of Incident is
increased the angle of
refraction also increases

Perspex

Up to a point where the


Compression Wave is at
90 from the Normal

Steel

This happens at the

90

FIRST CRITICAL ANGLE

CS

SC

S
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1st Critical Angle


C 27.4

Compression wave refracted


at 90 degrees

33
S
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2nd Critical Angle


C

57

S (Surface Wave)
90

Shear wave refracted at 90 degrees


Shear wave becomes a surface wave
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1st Critical Angle Calculation


C 27.2

Sine I
2730

Sine 90 5960
Perspex
C

Steel

Sin90 1
2730
SinI
5960

SinI 0.458
I 27.26

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2nd Critical Angle Calculation


C

Sine I
2730

Sine 90 3240

C
57.4
Perspex

Steel

Sin90 1
2730
SinI
3240

SinI 0.8425
I 57.4
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1st.
C

2nd.

Before the 1st. Critical Angle: There


are both Compression and Shear
wave in the second material
At the FIRST CRITICAL ANGLE
Compression wave refracted at 90
Shear wave at 33 degrees in the
material

90
Beyond the 2nd. Critical
Angle: All waves are
reflected out of the
material. NO wave in
the material.

S C

33

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Between the 1st. And 2nd.


Critical Angle: Only SHEAR
wave in the material.
Compression is reflected out
of the material.

At the 2nd. Critical Angle: Shear


is refracted to 90 and become
SURFACE wave

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Summary
Standard angle probes between 1st and
2nd critical angles (45,60,70)
Stated angle is refracted angle in steel
No angle probe under 35, and more
than 80: to avoid being 2 waves in the
One Defect Two Echoes
same material.
C

C
S
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Snells Law
Calculate the 1st critical angle for a
perspex/copper interface
V Comp perspex : 2730m/sec
V Comp copper : 4700m/sec

2730
SinI
0.5808 35.5
4700

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