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Business Letter

&
Report Writing

Introduction to business
letters
A business letter is usually a letter from one company to
another, or between such organizations and their customers,
clients and other external parties.
The overall style of letter depends on the relationship
between the parties concerned.
Business letters can have many types of contents, for example
To request direct information or action from another party,
To order supplies from a supplier,
To point out a mistake by the letter's recipient,

to reply directly to a request, to apologize for a wrong, or to convey goodwill.

A business letter is sometimes useful because it produces a


permanent written record, and may be taken more seriously by
the recipient than other forms of communication

Writing Business Letter


Purpose of a Business Letter

A business letter is a formal way of communicating between two or


more parties.
TO INFORM- tell or explain something to your reader
TO REQUEST or PERSUADE to call the reader to action. Request
suggests that the required action is easy or usual; persuade suggest
that more motivation and convincing is needed for the reader to act.
TO BUILD GOODWILL create a good image of yourself and your
organization; particularly an image that would make people want to do
business with you.
Business letters can be informational, persuasive, motivational, or
promotional.
Business letters should be typed and printed out on standard 8.5" x 11"
white paper.

Elements of a Good Letter


Identify and write to your audience.
Your objective should be in concise manner
Don't be vague/unclear about your objective
People will not have the patience to sit there and guess at
the meaning
Another important element to remember is to remain
professional
Even if you are writing a complaint letter,

remain polite and courteous,


simply state the problem(s)
along with any other relevant information and
be sure to avoid threats and insult.

Principles of writing letters


Courtesy and Consideration: It softens the
flow of an unpleasant piece of information,
creates goodwill and produces a favorable
response.
The following sentences may help you word your
business letter in a polite manner :

Many thanks for your letter of .


Thank you very much for your letter of ..
We are glad to note that you are now in a position to pay our bill.
We appreciate your writing to us so promptly.
We regret to inform you that we cannot meet your order
immediately.
We are sorry that you did not receive the order in time.

Principles of writing letters


Conciseness: While writing a business letter it is
important that your letter be concise and direct.
Avoid old fashioned, stuffy phrases and long winded
sentences associated with classic formal letter writing
Express your idea in straightforward, plain English.
Dont Use

Use

As per

In accordance with

We are in receipt of your letter

Thank you for your letter

You are hereby advised


We are/ I am pleased to advise

This letter is to let you know


that.
We are pleased/ I am pleased to
tell you
that or let you know that.

Principles of writing letters


Clarity and Precision: Whenever you write a letter, be clear
about what you want to say and say it clearly.
Use short, simple words and language to relate whatever you
want to tell in the letter.
Use concrete words- two words in English will have similar
meaning- in such cases, use the word which is commonly
understood.
FOR EXAMPLE: house V/S residence
Avoid long winded sentences (running into five lines and
more).
To make your letter clear, break it into different paragraphs
when you have to discuss more than one main point.

Principles of Effective
Writing

Effective written communication is achieved by the following principles:


Accuracy - A message should be communicated correctly in terms of grammar,
punctuation, and spelling.
To achieve accuracy, the writer should check and double-check:
All facts and figures
The choice of words
The language and tone

Brevity - A writer should follow brevity in writing only what needs to be said and
leaving out unnecessary words or details.
Clarity - A writer should convey a message clearly with the use of simple words
and phrases.

Principles of Effective
Writing

Language, tone and level of formality - A writer should make use of


language that is easily understood. He/she should also develop an
effective tone in written communication. It is also essential that the tone
used reflects the appropriate level of formality for a particular context.
Standard English - Includes the most commonly used and accepted
words, rules of grammar, sentence construction, punctuation, spelling,
paragraph construction, etc.
Tone - Refers to feelings created by words used to communicate a
message. The tone in writing sets the level of formality and reflects the
attitude of the writer toward the subject and audience. The tone may be
informal, semi-formal, or strictly formal.

Structure of a business letter


To make your letter effective, the presentation of the
letter also has to be effective.
Usually, the letter is drafted in two styles- Blocked and
Semi Blocked.
Blocked Every line in this style begins flush with the
left hand margin. Paragraphs are differentiated by
leaving a blank space in between them.
Semi blocked The first line of each paragraph is
indented in this style of writing letters.

Elements of Business Letter

Heading:

Many organizations use their letter head for writing business


letters.
This covers one fifth of the total space of the page.
The name and address of the organization is centered at the
top and other
information like the telephone numbers,
telegraphic address, etc.

Date:
This is very important as it might act as a proof that you
wrote on a particular date.
Type the date two spaces below the last line of the heading at
the left hand margin of the letter
In Britain it means 10th of September (first date and then
month is written)
whereas in USA, people understand it as 9 th of October (first
month and then date is written).

Elements of Business Letter

Salutation:

This is the vital part of the letter which is as good as wishing


the person
It is important that you address the name of the person if you
know it.

E.g. Dear Personnel Director,


Dear Sir or Madam: (use if you don't know who you are
writing to)
Dear Dr, Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms Smith: (use if you know who
you are writing to, and have a formal relationship with VERY IMPORTANT use Ms for women unless asked to
use Mrs or Miss)
Dear Frank: (use if the person is a close business contact or
friend)
Salutation is written two line space after the last line of
the address.

Elements of Business Letter

The Reference:

The advantage of writing a reference is that it helps to


trace the letter at a later date.
Writing reference number is of two types one indicates
the reference number that you allot for the letter that
you write
The other indicates the correspondents previous letter
to which you are replying now.
This is placed on the left hand side, two lines after the
salutation. However, some prefer to write it in the body
of the letter.
E.g. With reference to your advertisement in the Times,
your letter of 23rd March,
your phone call today,
Thank you for your letter of March 5th.

Elements of Business Letter

Inside Address:

The complete address of the person whom you are writing


to should be written.
You should place it two line-space after the date
Do not abbreviate or spell wrongly the name of the person.
Add Mr. before the name of a man,

Subject:
This indicates to the reader of the letter what the letter is
about. It saves the time of the reader.
The subject of the letter is written two line spaces after
the salutation.

Elements of Business Letter


Body: This contains the text of the letter that you write
You should organize the body of the letter into paragraphs
depending upon the matter of your communication.
A good business letter is concise
The body of a letter should be single spaced with double spaces
between paragraphs.
Following are various sentence openings for different types of
letters :
The Reason for Writing:
I am writing to inquire about
apologize for
confirm

Elements of Business Letter


Requesting:
Could you possibly?
I would be grateful if you could
Agreeing to Requests
I would be delighted to

Giving Bad News


Unfortunately
I am afraid that
Closing Remarks

Thank you for your help Please contact us again if we can help in any way.
there are any problems.
you have any questions.

Elements of Business Letter


Conclusion:

The conclusion is also known as


complimentary close.
The close should agree with the salutation that you have
written
It should be typed two spaces below the body of the
letter.
E.g. Yours faithfully, (If you don't know the name of the
person you're writing to)
Yours sincerely, (If you know the name of the person
you're writing to)
Best wishes, Best regards, (If the person is a close
business contact or friend)

Elements of Business Letter


Signature:

You should place your signature below the complimentary

close.
You should place your signature below the complimentary close. 4 line
spaces are left after the complimentary close to write your name in full
Do not write any title (Mr. Ms. Mrs.) before the name.
However, a woman may put a title after the name in brackets. Eg.: (Mrs.)
Kiran. Beneath the name you may specify your position CEO, Manager etc.

Enclosure: If you have to enclose any documents along with the


letter, you must mention it.
The word in abbreviated form encl. is typed two line space below
the name / position that you had specified after the signature.
If the documents are important you can specify the names of the
documents or only the number of documents is indicated.

Your address

Letter Writing: Structure

Date
Recipient
Recipients add
Salutation

Dear Sir

Title
Introduction
Explanation of problem
Give suggestions
Ask for action.
Seek common understanding.
Valediction
Signature
Full Name
Status

Yours faithfully

Salutation

Valediction

Dear Sir

Yours faithfully

Dear [name]

Yours
sincerely

Writing Routine and GoodNews Letters


Good-news letters are those letters that please the
receiver.
Routine letters, on the other hand, are those which
are received with interest but they neither please
nor displease the reader.
Both follow the same sequence of presentation of ideas
and have a deductive pattern, which is known as
direct organization of ideas

Writing Routine and Good-News Letters


Contd..
The basic plan of presenting ideas can be used in
different business situations such as:

Writing Routine and GoodNews Letters Contd..


Routine claim letters and yes replies
A claim letter is a request for adjustment. When the writer thinks that the
request for adjustment will be automatically granted without delay or
without requiring persuasion, he or she writes the letter in the routine form.
In such situations, the writer can use the following sequence:
1. Request action in the opening sentence.
2. Give reasons supporting the request or action.
3. End by appreciating or thanking the addressee for taking the action
requested.
Similarly, the person replying to a routine claim letter knows that the recipient
will be glad to know that his or her request has been granted; therefore, the
writer states an expression of willingness in the first sentence of the
response.

Writing Routine and GoodNews Letters Contd..


Routine request letters and yes replies
A letter to, say, a vendor, requesting information about a product, should state clearly
and completely what information is desired. A request for information should not
suggest that the writer wants to place an order.

Routine order letters and yes replies


Routine orders should be explicit and thorough. In addition to this, they should be
very clear about what they expect by giving complete details of the desired product.
The time of delivery and the mode of shipment should be specified clearly in such
letters.

Writing Routine and Good


News Letters Contd..

Guidelines for a yes reply

Be it a routine claim, request, or order, the guidelines a writer


needs to follow are:

The beginning should state the reason for writing the letter
and the main idea.

The middle paragraphs should give details of the good news,


describe the product offered, and explain why the
replacement would satisfy the receiver.

The end should draw the readers attention to the conditions,


if any, attached to the positive response and the letter should
close on a positive note of thanks.

Writing Routine and Good


News Letters Contd..
Guidelines for a no reply
A writer must be able to write no while minimizing the readers
disappointment. To achieve this objective, the information should be
patterned as follows:
The letter should begin with a paragraph that describes the general
situation as the context in which the readers request was considered and
also indicate the reason for refusal.
The no letter should give facts and provide reasons and factors for
refusal.
The refusal should be mentioned in the same paragraph.
The end of the no response seeks to maintain good business relations with
the reader by suggesting an alternative course of action or a better deal in
the future.

Writing Persuasive Letters


Persuasive letters are those that arouse
the readers interest and induce him or
her to act as directed. These letters
essentially sell ideas to others. The
persuasive pattern is also known as
persuasive organization.

Writing Persuasive Letters


Persuasive
letters
involve
following sequence of ideas:

the

The opening sentence should catch the


readers attention
The middle section gives details about the
product or scheme that is being promoted.
After arousing the readers interest in the
proposal, the letter then requests action such
as a yes response to the proposed request.
The last paragraph reminds the reader of
the benefits and requests action within the
given deadline.

Types of business letters


Letters have to be drafted differently
for different reasons.
The different letters:
complaint letter
Invitations
Apology letter and
Covering letter for job application.

Cover Letter Writing


What is a cover letter?
A cover letter is a brief one page letter sent along with the
resume to potential employers.
The purpose of the cover letter is to present yourself to potential
employers and
To let them know what position you are interested in and why you'd
be a good fit for their company.

Cover Letter Format

The cover letter format should be almost identical to the regular business
letter format
Generally the cover letter will consist of three paragraphs.

The first paragraph is an introductory one which introduces yourself.


The second paragraph should provide information on your skill, strengths,
education, qualifications and/or experience.

Cover Letter Writing


The final paragraph should close up the letter
by requesting an interview and possibly
suggestion times that are convenient for you
or stating that you can come in at a time
that's convenient for the employer.
Each cover letter that you send out should be
unique and tailored to the specific company
and position you are applying to.
Also be sure to check for grammar and spelling
and keep the letter to one page in length.

Letter of complaint
When writing a complaint letter you want to keep it
short and to the point to help ensure that your letter
will be read in its entirety,
if you write a seven page complaint letter, it's highly
unlikely that someone will sit down and read all seven
pages.
The complaint letter should be addressed to the
customer service/consumer affairs department or the
head office if there is no customer service department.
The address and contact information of the customer
service department should be available on the
company's products or website.

Letter of Complaint
In the first paragraph you should identify what the issue is
and any relevant information that you believe is important.
Be sure to include the following information if it's
applicable to the situation:
The date/time of the issue,
location, name of person on duty,
Name of product, What the problem was,
your account number,
model number, price, warranty information and
reference number. Be sure to stick with the facts and
avoid putting emotions into your letter.

Letter of complaint
The next paragraph should state what you would like to be done
to resolve the situation.
If you received poor service, you could request an apology or a
coupon.
If a product malfunctioned, you could request that you could
exchange the product for a new one or request a refund.
The last paragraph should thank the reader for the time.
You can also throw in some compliments about something you
liked about their company's product or service.

Response to a letter of complaint:


The response to a letter of request, like any of the other letters already
described, should
Orient the reader
Identify the purpose of the letter, reminding the reader of his or
her request & any conditions upon it.
Provide the information requested

Job Interview Thank You Letters


You should write a thank you letter as soon as
possible (within 24 hours is recommended)
after the job interview,
At a minimum this should be done through email
but is recommended that you do this through a
hard-copy of a letter printed out
A hard-copy thank you letter should be written
in the business letter format,
While an email should be sent in the same
format but without the heading (your return
address, their address, and the date).

Thank you letter writing:


The first paragraph should consist of thanking the
interviewer for the interviewing you (remind him/her
about the position you interviewed for and the date of
your interview)
The second paragraph should state your interests in
the company and include any additional information
about yourself that was not brought up in the
interview which would make you a good candidate for
the position.
The last paragraph should let the recruiter know that
you expect to hear from them soon.
Also let them know that you are available to come in
again and are willing to discuss the job further.

Letter of Enquiries - Asking for Information


We write an enquiry when we want to ask for more
information concerning a product service or other
information about a product or service that interests us.
These letters are often written in response to an
advertisement
But would like more information before making a
decision.
Remember to place your or your company's address at
the top of the letter (or use your company's letterhead)
followed by the address of the company you are writing
to. The date can either be placed double spaced down or
to the right.

Important Language to Remember


The Start: Dear Sir or Madam
To Whom It May Concern - (very formal as you do not know the
person to whom you are writing)

Giving Reference: With


advertisement (ad) in...

reference

to

your

Regarding your advertisement (ad) in ...

Requesting a Catalogue, Brochure, Etc.: After


the reference, add a comma and continue - ... ,
would (Could) you please send me ...
Requesting Further Information: I would also like
to know ... Could you tell me whether ...
Signature: Yours faithfully - (very formal as you
do not know the person to whom you are writing)

Sales and Promotional Letters


Sales and promotional letters are used by salespeople to
set up or confirm appointments, announce sales promotions.
The letter itself is a sales tool.
The first part of the letter states your purpose.
Depending on the reason for writing the letter,
Your purpose is to stimulate the readers interest. Identify
the benefit to your recipient.
The second part of the letter gives details or background
information.
If you are making a request, then this part would give the
reason for the request.
The last part of the letter acts as a statement of desired
action and as a summary reminding the recipient of the
letters general nature.

Writing Memos
A memo is a form used by a person known to the
receiver personally. It is also referred to as a
memorandum. It is less formal and has no salutations,
Greetings. or even a signature at the end.

How to write a memo: A memo is short and written


in a friendly tone. It addresses the subject under
discussion immediately.

Uses of a memo: A memo acts as a permanent


record of whatever is communicated. Therefore, it
should be written with great care and skill.

Writing Memos Contd..


Functions of a memo
1. To provide information
2.To issue an instruction
3.To convey a policy decision
4.To offer suggestions
5.To record/report an agreement

Report Writing
WHAT IS A REPORT?
After the letter , the report is the most used form in
business writing.
A report can be defined as a communication in which
the writer gives information to some individual or
organization because it is his or her responsibility to do
so.
The common element in all reports, as a distinct form
of writing, is the element of responsibility.
The writer is obliged to communicate what he/she
knows to one who needs it,
As a part of his/her assigned, clearly defined and timebound task.

PURPOSE OF A REPORT
To give information about a company's activities,
progress, plans and problems.
To record events for future reference in
decision making.
To recommend specific action.
To justify and persuade readers about the need
for action in controversial situations.
To present facts to the management to help
decide the direction the business should choose.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A REPORT AND OTHER


FORMS OF WRITING
Reports and projects generally draw on outside sources.
They present facts, conclusions and recommendations
based on investigation and analysis of data obtained by
observation of facts.
The word 'paper' can mean several things. It can mean an
article, a detailed report, or a project report. But it is
generally used for research writing.
Reports have a highly structured format.
Each part is numbered and captioned with headings and
sub-headings.
Reports contain recommendations and conclusions.
Reports make use of tables and graphs.
Reports are usually preceded by a summary.

KINDS OF REPORTS
Broadly speaking, reports are of two kinds Formal reports that contain all essential elements of a report.
Semi-formal/informal reports.

Reports are known by the names they get from their purpose
and their form. Reports are usually identified as:

Reports made by filling in a printed form (Routine Report)


Reports in the form of letters (Letter Report)
Reports in the form of memos (Memo Report)
Reports on the progress and status of a project (Progress
Report)
Periodic Reports
Laboratory Reports
Short Informal Reports (in the form of Letters and Memos)
Formal Reports

WRITING REPORTS
A report presents facts, conclusions, and recommendations in simple and clear
words, in a logical and well-defined structure.
The elements (parts) of a full report, in the order of their sequence (in a long
formal report) are
Cover
Title Page
Acknowledgements
Table of Contents
Executive Summary
Introduction
Discussion/Description
Conclusions
Recommendations
Appendix
List of References
Bibliography
Glossary
Index

The first five elements constitute the front matter,


The next four elements form the main body and
The last five, constitute the back matter.
Structure
Normal Arrangement
Conclusions and Recommendations after Discussion.

Alternative Arrangement
Business heads are usually short of time.
Therefore, more interested in knowing the conclusions and
recommendations of the findings.

Alternative Arrangement
Summary

Non-technical

Introduction
Conclusions

Partly technical

Recommendations
Discussion
Appendix

Fully technical

Short Management Report


A short report is usually written either in the form of
memorandum (Memo) or a letter.
Usually, reports meant for persons outside the
company or clients are written in letter form.
The short report Consists of the title page or just the reports' title as the
heading or subject.
Usually, it is in direct order beginning with a summary or a
statement
summarizing the whole content.
Presents findings, analysis, conclusions and recommendations

Short Management Report


Memos

Are used as internal messages


Are informal.
Need no introductory information
Solve problems

Letters
Are written usually to cover short problems.
Are organized in the indirect order
End on a good-will note.

EXAMPLE

WRITING ELEMENTS OF A LONG FORMAL


REPORT
The Title Page Mention Name and status of author.
Department and date of issue.
The Heading (title of the report) should be short, clear and
unambiguous.

Example of a title:
A feasibility report on the incorporation of
outdoor health education activities in the ESCORTS
Management Development Programme.
Acknowledgements:
You should thank everyone associated with the assignment and
preparation of your report.
Be generous in expressing your gratitude.

Example:
I thank my organization FPL Feedback Packaging Limited for
giving me an opportunity to conduct the research project. A
special word of thanks to Mr. Suresh Kumar (Director & Chief
Executive), Mr. Nitin Khanna (DGM) and Executives of PPL
Feedback Packaging Limited for giving me the necessary
guidance and help in research work.
I also thank all the respondents of survey, who gave me
valuable information to carry out the study.
Finally, I wish to thank my colleagues of the marketing
department, who contributed valuable inputs to the research
work.

Cover Letter: A cover letter is usually written by top


management/or project guide as a preface or foreword to a
report, reflecting the management's policy and interpretation of
the report's findings, conclusions and recommendations.

Table of Contents:
Long reports must have a Table of Contents placed after
Acknowledgements and before the Summary.
It identifies the topics and their page numbers in the report
(or any long document) for the reader
The Table of Contents indicates the hierarchy of topics and
their sequence also.

Example

ABSTRACT AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


An abstract or summary is placed immediately after the list of tables, or
after the title page or on the title page itself.
A summary

Should give the context of report.


Provide most important findings, conclusions and recommendations
Should act as a time saver for the busy management.

Types of Abstract:
Descriptive Abstract: Normally a research paper should have an
informative abstract which gives information about the purpose of
the study,
Informative Abstract: An indicative abstract
(descriptive
abstract) indicates the contents of the paper and the scope of the
work done without giving information about the result and
conclusion.

Executive Summary: An executive summary covers all the major


elements of a report's content

Background of the problem


Major topics
Important details
Major conclusions
Recommendations
Discussion of the ways that the implementation of recommendations would
affect the company.

Introduction: States the details of the Authorizing person or body requesting the report
Author or group of authors responsible for investigation (and submission of
the report)
Purpose or reason for the report
Methods of enquiry (the research method used)
Arrangement or grouping of data
General background to report's subject

Findings: Presents the results of the investigation.


Conclusions
States the results of the investigation.
Offers answers to questions raised in the beginning of the report.
No new information should appear in the conclusion.

Recommendations

This part is the action centre of the report.


State how the conclusions should be acted upon.
Make clear and definite recommendations.
If further investigation is required, mention it as a condition for a
more comprehensive

study of the problem.


You cannot have a report without recommendations, even if you have
not been asked to
give them. Recommendations flow out of conclusions, as conclusions
do from discussion.

Media management: The press


Release
Media management is a term used for
several related tasks throughout
post-production.
In general, any task that relates to
processing your media is considered to
be media management, such as
capturing,
compressing,
copying,
moving, or deleting media files.

The Press Release


A press release, news release, media
release, press statement or video
release is a written or recorded
communication directed at members of
the news media for the purpose of
announcing
something
ostensibly
newsworthy.

The Press Release

Letterhead/Logo
Contact Information
For Immediate Release
Headline and sub-headline
Headline: County Health Department Launches Childhood
Obesity Program
Subhead: Community grant keeps kids on playgrounds,
off couches

Date
Body

Press Conference
A news conference or press conference
is a media event in which newsmakers
invite journalists to hear them speak
and, most often, ask questions. A joint
press conference instead is held
between two or more talking sides.

How do you hold a press


conference
Before the press conference

Define the message


Schedule the date and time
Pick the site.
Contact the media
Follow up with the media
Develop a press kit

Group Communication
MEETINGS

Meetings are an important facet of corporate life today.


Every time you say hello, you start a meeting.

A group of people from an organization participate in a meeting because


major projects demand that knowledge and expertise from several sources
be pooled, for successful implementation.
Massive organizational, technological, and social changes have taken place in
our time.

Meetings also serve as vehicles for individual advancement


and organizational achievement.

Purpose of meeting:
Meetings for informational purposes

Meetings for decision making purposes

Meetings for informational


purposes
1) To communicate important or sensitive information
2) To explore new ideas and concepts
3) To provide feedback
4) To present a report
5) To gain support for an idea or project
6) An informational meeting is called so that the participants
can share information and possibly coordinate action.
7) Decision making meetings are mainly concerned with
persuasion, analyses, and problem solving.
8) They often include the brainstorming session which is
followed by a debate and the alternatives.

Meetings for decision making


purposes
1) To reach a group conscience
2) To solve a problem
3) To reconcile a conflict
4) To negotiate an agreement
5) To win acceptance for a new idea, plan
or system

Preparation
1) Before you call a meeting ask your self the following
questions
What is my objective?
Is the timing right?
How much will the meeting cost

2) If you decide to call a meeting then determines the


following:

Time
Duration
Agenda
Participants
Venue
setup

Given below are some of the


scheduling guidelines
Choose a time during which participants are at their best.
Do not call meeting on Monday mornings or Friday
afternoons
Start at an unusual time and at a natural brake point.
Ex: schedule meeting at lunch time or close of the work
day
Allow ample time for preparation:
Make sure you allow participant more time to prepare
Avoid surprise meetings:
On the spot meetings interrupt the flow of the work
day.

Given below are some of the


scheduling guidelines
Duration:
The appropriate length for a meeting depends on the type of
meeting it is, and on the number, complexity and sensitivity
of agenda items
If you have more topics than you can effectively cover in a
single meeting schedule a second meeting rather that trying
to cramp too much information in to the first.

Agenda:
A written agenda, the list of the individual items that need
to be discussed in the meeting, should be distributed in
advance.

Guidelines of Agenda
1) Limit the no of agenda items:
Focus on a few critical items 3 to 6 is a good rule of thumb

2) Don't dwell on the past:


If a meeting is to be productive, it must focus on actions and decision that
will affect the future.

3) Present opportunities not problem:


Instead of focusing on problems recast them as opportunities

4) Allocate ample time:


Allocate some extra time for questions, creative discussions.

5) Include sufficient detail:


An agenda item should give participants the specific information they need
to prepare for the meeting.
Ex: instead of an agenda item advertising budget , you can have allocate
the advertising budget among direct mail, print media, radio, and television.

Participants
One of the primary causes of unproductive meeting is
not having the right people in attendance.
Identify the right people to attend a meeting:
Those who have enough knowledge of the subject to make a
meaningful contribution to the meeting
Those with the power to make decision or approve projects
Those responsible for implementing decision made in the
meeting
Those who will be affected by the decision made, or their
representative
Those who need information that will be presented in the
meeting, in order to perform their jobs more effectively.

Optimal meeting size

Problem solving

Max No. of
participants
3-5

Decision making

6-10

Problem identification

6-10

Informational

20-30

Review or presentation

20-30

Motivational

No limit

Meeting type

Venue and setting


A meeting room can enhance or inhibit productivity, encourage or
discourage communication, promote or stifle creativity, and make
participants feel relaxed or tense.
It is important to take great care in its selection and setup
Once you decide on a room, whether it is within the company
premises or outside the office, reserve it early.
If the room you want is not available, locate a similar site or
consider postponing the meeting.
Given below is some layout for arranging a room set up to improve
access, heighten interaction and increase visual contacts:
Boardroom style is suitable for most meeting that involve sitting
round a table.
Conference or theatre style: is suitable for annual general body
meeting or any other meeting which involves a large number of
particulars, presentations, and a question and answer session.

Procedure
The quality of a meeting is largely determined by how well
the players act out their role.
By paying the three primary roles of

leader,
facilitator, and
participants,
The chairperson can direct the meeting towards achieving its
specified goal.

Responsibilities of the chairperson in meeting:


Getting the meeting off to a good start
Encouraging participation
Drawing silent types into the discussion
Joining the discussion, Dealing with late comers, Managing conflicts
Injecting humor, Ending the meeting.

Proposal Writing

What are Proposals?


A proposal can be defined as an offer
document presented to undertake work
affecting the future of an organization
Usually a proposal is given for any additions or
amendments to be incorporated within a
business framework
Proposals are also tools of communication but in
a different sense. They do not just give the
facts but also a probable solution to particular
problem or situation

Types of Proposals
Sales Proposals
Research Proposals
Solicited Proposals
Unsolicited Proposals

Basics of writing a proposal


Proposal is similar to a report & therefore all
the stages of writing a report apply here.
The only difference is that a proposal is
result oriented, it has to achieve its purpose.
The proposal is written on the basis of the
AIDA formula
Attention Interest Desire & Action

The structure of a Proposal

To
From
Introduction: Aim, Scope & some time Summary
Body
Problem
Background of proposing company
Purpose & Scope
Procedure
Cost Estimate
Conclusion