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ERT 210

Process Control & dynamics

CHAPTER 8
Dynamic Response Characteristics of
More Complicated Processes
Miss Anis Atikah binti Ahmad

Chapter
Chapter 66

OUTLINE

1. Poles and Zeros and Their Effect on

Process Response
General Representation of standard transfer function form:
- There are two equivalent representations:

Chapter
Chapter 66

G s

i
b
s
i
i 0
n

i
a
s
i

bm s m bm 1s m 1 ... b0

(4-40)
n
an s an 1s n 1 ... a0

(6-2)

i 0

G s

bm s z1 s z2 K s zm

an s p1 s p2 K s pn

(6-7)

where {zi} are the zeros and {pi} are the poles.
3

Process Response

Consider a particular transfer function;

Chapter
Chapter 66

K
, where 0 < 1.
G(s)
2
s ( 1s 1)( 2 s 2 2 2 s 1)
The roots of these factors are

s1 0
1
s2
1
1 2

s3
j
2
2
1 2

s4
j
2
2

The values of s
that are the
denominator
polynomial-refer
as poles

(6-1)

Process Response
POLES:

s1 0
s2

1
1

Chapter 6

1 2

s3 j
2
2
1 2

s4 j
2
2

Figure 6.1 Poles of G(s) plotted

in the complex s plane.
(X denotes a pole location)

Summary: Effects of Pole and Zero Locations

1. Poles
Pole in right half plane (RHP): results in unstable system (i.e., unstable
Example
step responses)

Chapter66
Chapter

Imaginary axis
x
x
x

x = unstable pole
Real axis

(grows with
time)

Complex pole: results in oscillatory responses (contains sine and cosine

Example
terms)
Imaginary axis
x = complex poles
x
Real axis
x

2. Zeros
Note: Zeros have no effect on system stability.

Chapter
Chapter 66

the input
Imaginary axis
x

Real
axis

inverse
response

Zero in left half plane: may result in overshoot during a step

response (see Fig. 6.3).
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2. Process with Time

Delays

Transportatio
n lag/
transport
time

Chapter 6

= Time taken to
transport fluid from
point 1 to point 2

Mathematical description:
A time delay, between an input u and an output y results in the
0
following expression:
fort

y t
u t fort
Transfer Function Representation:
Y s

U s

e s

(6-27)

(6-28)

Chapter 6

2. Process with Time

Delays (cont)

3. Approximation of Higher-Order
Transfer Functions
Two widely used approximations are:

Chapter 6

1. Taylor Series Expansion:

e

2 s 2 3 s 3 4 s 4
1 s

K
2!
3!
4!

(6-34)

The approximation is obtained by truncating after only a few

terms.
Many are available. For example, the 1/1 approximation is,

e s
10

1 s
2

1 s
2

(6-35)

Functions (cont)

Chapter 6

The 2/2 Pad Approximations approximation;

e s

s 2 s 2
1

2
12
G2 ( s )
s 2 s 2
1

2
12

(6.37)

Note:
Please refer page 138 and 139 for more explanations.

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Example 6.5

Chapter 6

The trickle-bed catalytic reactor shown in Fig. 6.8 utilizes product

recycle to obtain satisfactory operating conditions for temperature
and conversion. Use of a high recycle rate eliminates the need for
mechanical agitation. Concentrations of the single reactant and the
product are measured at a point in the recycle line where the
product stream is removed. A liquid phase first-order reaction is
involved.
Under normal operating conditions, the following assumption may
1.
2.
3.

12

4.

The reactor operates isothermally so that the reaction rate k is

constant.
All flow rates and the liquid volume V are constant.
No reaction occurs in the piping. The dynamics of the exit and
recycle lines can be approximated as constant time delay 1 and 2,
as indicated in the figure. Let c1 denote the reactant concentration at
the measured point.
Because of the high recycle flow rate, mixing in the reactor is
complete.

Example 6.5 (cont)

Chapter
Chapter 66

Question:
'
'
C
(
s
)
/
C
i ( s ).
1. Derive an expression for the transfer function 1
2. Using the following information, calculate ci' (t ) for a step change
'
3
in ci (t ) 2000 kg/m .

Parameter Values:
V = 5 m3
= 12
q = 0.05 m3/min 1 = 0.9 min
k = 0.04 min-1
2 = 1.1 min

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Figure 6.8: Schematic diagram of a trickle-bed reactor with recycle line.

(AT: analyzer transmitter; 1: time delay associated with material flow
from reactor outlet to the composition analyzer; 2: time delay associated
with material flow from transmitter to reactor inlet.

Solution
(a) Equation 2.66 is applicable only to an isothermal stirred-tank reactor
without recycle. Hence, we make component balance around the
reactor.
(6.39)
dc

Chapter
Chapter 66

dt

where the concentration of the reactant is denoted by c. Equation 6.39

is linear with constant coefficients. Subtracting the steady-state
equation and substituting deviation variables yields

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dc '
qci 'qc2 '(1 ) qc'Vkc'
dt

(6.40)

Additional relations are needed for c2'(t) and c1'(t). They can be
obtained from assumption (iii), which states that the exit and recycle
lines can be modeled as time delays:
(6.41)
c1 ' (t ) c ' (t 1 )
(6.42)
c2 ' (t ) c1 ' (t 2 )

Equations 6-40 through 6.42 provide the process model for the
isothermal reactor with recycle. Taking the Laplace transform of each
equation yields
sVC ' ( s ) qCi ' ( s ) qC2 ' ( s ) (1 )qC ' ( s ) VkC ' ( s )

(6.44)

C1 ' ( s ) e 1s C ' ( s )

Chapter
Chapter 66

(6.43)

C2 ' ( s ) e 2 s C1 ' ( s )
e (1 2 ) s C ' ( s )

(6.45)

e 3 s C ' ( s )

where 3 = 1+ 2. Substitute (6.45) into (6.43) and solve for the output
C'(s):

C ' ( s)
15

sV qe 3 s

q
Ci ' ( s )
(1 ) q Vk

(6.46)

C ' ( s)

K
Ci ' ( s )
3 s
s 1 K (1 e
)

(6.47)

where
q
q Vk
V

q Vk

(6.48)

Chapter
Chapter 66

(6.49)

Note that, in the limit as 3 0, e s 1 and

3

C ' ( s)

K
Ci ' ( s )
s 1

(6.50)

hence K and can be interpreted as the process gain and time constant,
respectively, of a recycle reactor with no time delay in the recycle line,
which is equivalent to a stirred isothermal reactor with no recycle.
16

The desired transfer function C1'(s)/Ci' (s) is obtained by combining

Eqs. 6-47 and 6-44 to obtain

Chapter
Chapter 66

C1 ' ( s )
Ke 1s

Ci ' ( s ) s 1 K (1 e 3 s )

(6.51)

(b) To find c1'(t) when ci'(t) = 2000 kg/m3, we multiply (6.51) by 2000/s
2000 Ke 1s
C1 ' ( s )
s[s 1 K (1 e 3 s )

(6.52)

and take the Laplace transform. From (6.52), it is clear that the numerator time
delay can be inverted directly; however, there is no transform in Table 3.1 that
contains a time-delay term in the denominator.
To obtain an analytical solution, the denominator time delay term must be
eliminated by introducing a rational approximation, for example, the 1/1 Pad
approximation in (6.35).
G1 ( s ) G1 ( s )
17

1
1

s
s

(6.35)

C1 ' ( s )

s 1 e 1s
2

3 K 3 s 1
2

2000 K

s 3 s2

(6.53)

Chapter
Chapter 66

This expression can be written in the form

2000 K a s 1 e 1s
C1 ' ( s )
s ( 1s 1)( 2 s 1)

(6.54)

where a = 3/2 and 1 and 2 are obtained by factoring the expression in

brackets. For K3 > 0, 1 and 2 will be real and distinct.
The numerical parameters in (6.53) are:
q
0.05

0.2
q Vk
0.05 (5)(0.04)
V

20 min
q Vk
K

18

Substituting the values in (6.53), we obtain

400 s 1 e 0.9 s
400 s 1 e 0.9 s
C1 ' ( s )

2
s 20s (20 1 (24)(0.2)(1)) s 1 s (25s 1)(0.8s 1)

(6.55)

Chapter 6

Taking inverse Laplace and introducing the delayed unit step function
S(t - 0.9) gives;

(6.56)

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Figure 6.9 Recycle reactor composition measured at analyzer:

(a) complete response; (b) detailed view of short-term response.

3. Approximation of Higher-Order
Transfer Functions

Chapter
Chapter 66

In this section, we present a general approach for approximating

high-order transfer function models with lower-order models that
have similar dynamic and steady-state characteristics.
In Eq. 6-34 we showed that the transfer function for a time delay
can be expressed as a Taylor series expansion. For small values
of s, after the first-order term provides a suitable approximation:
e 0 s 1
e s

20

0s

2 s 2 3 s 3 4 s 4
1 s

K
2!
3!
4!

(6-57)
(6-34)

function,

Chapter
Chapter 66

0 s

1
e

0 s

1 0 s

(6-58)

where the time constant has a value of 0 .

Equations 6-57 and 6-58 were derived to approximate timedelay terms.
However, these expressions can also be used to approximate
the pole or zero term on the right-hand side of the equation by
the time-delay term on the left side.
21

Skogestad (2002) has proposed a related approximation method
for higher-order models that contain multiple time constants.

Chapter
Chapter 66

He approximates the largest neglected time constant in the

following manner.
One half of its value is added to the existing time delay (if any)
and the other half is added to the smallest retained time
constant.
Time constants that are smaller than the largest neglected time
constant are approximated as time delays using (6-58).
e
22

0 s

1
e

0 s

1 0 s

(6-58)

Example 6.4
Consider a transfer function:

Chapter
Chapter 66

G s

K 0.1s 1

5s 1 3s 1 0.5s 1

(6-59)

Derive an approximate first-order-plus-time-delay model,

s
Ke
G% s
s 1
using two methods:

(6-60)

(a) The Taylor series expansions of Eqs. 6-57 and 6-58.

(b) Skogestads half rule
Compare the normalized responses of G(s) and the approximate
23 models for a unit step input.

Solution
(a) The dominant time constant (5) is retained. Applying
the approximations in (6-57) and (6-58) gives:

Chapter 6

0.1s 1 e0.1s

(6-61)

and
1
e 3s
3s 1

1
e 0.5 s
0.5s 1

(6-62)

TS s :
0.1s 3s 0.5 s
3.6 s
Ke
e
e
Ke
G%

TS s
5s 1
5s 1
24

(6-63)

(b) To use Skogestads method, we note that the largest neglected

time constant in (6-59) has a value of three.

Chapter
Chapter 66

According to his half rule, half of this value is added to the

next largest time constant to generate a new time constant
5 0.5(3) 6.5.
The other half provides a new time delay of 0.5(3) = 1.5.
The approximation of the RHP zero in (6-61) provides an
(6-61)
additional time delay of 0.1. 0.1s 1 e0.1s
Approximating the smallest time constant of 0.5 in (6-59) by
(6-58) produces an additional time delay of 0.5.
Thus the total time delay in (6-60) is,
1.5 0.1 0.5 2.1
G s
25

K 0.1s 1

5s 1 3s 1 0.5s 1

(6-59)

and G(s) can be approximated as:

2.1s
Ke
G%
Sk s
6.5s 1

(6-64)

Chapter
Chapter 66

The normalized step responses for G(s) and the two approximate models
are shown in Fig. 6.10. Skogestads method provides better agreement
with the actual response.

Figure 6.10 Comparison

of the actual and
approximate models for
Example 6.4.

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Example 6.5
Consider the following transfer function:

Chapter
Chapter 66

G s

K 1 s e s

(6-65)

Use Skogestads method to derive two approximate models:

(a) A first-order-plus-time-delay model in the form of (6-60)
(b) A second-order-plus-time-delay model in the form:
s
Ke
G% s
1s 1 2 s 1

(6-66)

Compare the normalized output responses for G(s) and the

approximate models to a unit step input.
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Solution
(a) For the first-order-plus-time-delay model, the dominant time
constant (12) is retained.

Chapter
Chapter 66

One-half of the largest neglected time constant (3) is allocated

to the retained time constant and one-half to the approximate
time delay.
Also, the small time constants (0.2 and 0.05) and the zero (1)
are added to the original time delay.
Thus the model parameters in (6-60) are:
3.0
1
0.2 0.05 1 3.75
2
3.0
12
13.5
2
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Chapter
Chapter 66

(b) An analogous derivation for the second-order-plus-time-delay

model gives:
0.2
1
0.05 1 2.15
2
1 12,
2 3 0.1 3.1
In this case, the half rule is applied to the third largest time
constant (0.2). The normalized step responses of the original and
approximate transfer functions are shown in Fig. 6.11.
Figure 6.11 Comparison
of the actual model and
approximate models for
Example 6.5. The actual
and second-order model
responses are almost
indistinguishable.
29

4. Interacting and Noninteracting

Processes
Consider a process with several invariables and several output
variables. The process is said to be interacting if:

Chapter
Chapter 66

Each input affects more than one output.

or
A change in one output affects the other outputs.

Otherwise, the process is called noninteracting.

As an example, we will consider the two liquid-level storage
systems shown in Figs. 4.3 and 6.13.
In general, transfer functions for interacting processes are more
complicated than those for noninteracting processes.

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Chapter
Chapter 66

Figure 4.3. A noninteracting system:

two surge tanks in series.

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Chapter
Chapter 66

Figure 4.3. A noninteracting system:

two surge tanks in series.

Mass Balance:

Valve Relation:

dh1
A1
qi q1
dt

(4-48)

1
q1 h1
R1

(4-49)

32

dh1
1
A1
qi h1
dt
R1

(4-50)

Chapter
Chapter 66

dh1
1

A1
qi h1
dt
R1

(4-51)

1
q1 h1
R1

(4-52)

The transfer function relating H1 s to Q1i s is found by

transforming (4-51) and rearranging to obtain
H1 s
R1
K1

Qi s A1R1s 1 1s1

(4-53)

@A1R1. Similarly, the transfer function

where K1 @
= R1 and 1 =
relating Q1 s to H1 s is obtained by transforming (4-52).
33

Q1 s
1
1

H1 s R1 K1

(4-54)

Chapter
Chapter 66

The same procedure leads to the corresponding transfer functions

for Tank 2,
H 2 s
R2
K2

(4-55)
Q2 s A2 R2 s 1 2 s1
Q2 s
1
1

H 2 s R2 K 2

(4-56)

where K 2 @
= R2 and 2 @
= A2 R2. Note that the desired transfer
function relating the outflow from Tank 2 to the inflow to Tank 1
can be derived by forming the product of (4-53) through (4-56).
34

Q2 s Q2 s H 2 s Q1 s H1 s

Qi s H 2 s Q1 s H1 s Qi s

(4-57)

Q2 s
1 K 2 1 K1

Qi s K 2 2 s 1 K1 1s 1

(4-58)

Chapter
Chapter 66

or

Q2 s
1

Qi s 1s 1 2 s 1

(4-59)

a second-order transfer function (does unity gain make sense on

physical grounds?). Figure 4.4 is a block diagram showing
information flow for this system.
35

Block Diagram for Noninteracting

Surge Tank System

Figure 4.4. Input-output model for two liquid surge tanks in series.

36

Chapter
Chapter 66

1
q1 h1 h2
R1

(6-70)

The transfer functions for the interacting system are:

37

H 2 s
R2
2 2
Qi s s 2s 1

(6-74)

Chapter
Chapter 66

Q2 s
1
2 2
Qi s s 2s 1
H1 s
K1 a s 1
2 2
Qi s s 2s 1

(6-72)

where
1 2 R2 A1
= 1 2 , @
, and a =
@R1R2 A2 / R1 R2
=
2 1 2
In Exercise 6.15, the reader can show that > 1 by analyzing the
denominator of (6-71); hence, the transfer function is
overdamped, second order, and has a negative zero.
38

Model Comparison

Noninteracting system
Q2 s
1

Qi s 1s 1 2 s 1

(4-59)

where 1 =
@A1 R1 and 2 =
@A2 R2 .

Interacting system
Q2 s
1
2 2
Qi s
s 2s 1
where 1 and @
= 1

General Conclusions
1. The interacting system has a slower response.
(Example: consider the special case where =
2. Which two-tank system provides the best damping
of inlet flow disturbances?
39

Chapter
Chapter 66

Most industrial process control applications involved a

number of input (manipulated) and output (controlled)
variables.
These applications often are referred to as multiple-input/
multiple-output (MIMO) systems to distinguish them
from the simpler single-input/single-output (SISO)
systems that have been emphasized so far.
Modeling MIMO processes is no different conceptually
than modeling SISO processes.
40

For example, consider the system illustrated in Fig. 6.14.

Here the level h in the stirred tank and the temperature T are to
be controlled by adjusting the flow rates of the hot and cold
streams wh and wc, respectively.

Chapter
Chapter 66

The temperatures of the inlet streams Th and Tc represent

potential disturbance variables.
Note that the outlet flow rate w is maintained constant and the
liquid properties are assumed to be constant in the following
derivation.

(6-88)
41

Chapter
Chapter 66
Figure 6.14. A multi-input, multi-output thermal mixing process.
42

Chapter
Chapter 66

Figure 6.15. Block

diagram of the MIMO
thermal mixing system
with variable level.

43

Chapter
Chapter 66

THANK YOU

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