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Gas Turbine Control

Philosophy

Gas Turbine
Rotating Blow Torch
Designed to Run at the
Ragged Edge of
Self Destruction

Speedtronic Control System

Control System for Gas Turbine


Gas

turbine is controlled Speedtronic control system


Control loops includes

Start-up
Acceleration
Speed
Temperature
Shutdown and
Manual Control functions

Speedtronic Control loops

Major Control loops

Secondary control loops

Start-up
Acceleration
Speed and
Manual FSR and
Temperature
Shutdown

Output of these control loops is fed to a minimum value gate


Display
circuit
Fuel
Temperature
Display
Speed

Acceleration
Rate
Display
Start Up
Shut Down
Manual

M
I
N

FSR

To Turbine

Speedtronic Control loops


Fuel

Stroke Reference (FSR)

Command signal for fuel flow

Controlling

FSR

Lowest of the six control loops

Establishes the fuel input to turbine @ rate required by system


which is in control

Only

ONE control loop will be in control at anytime.

The control loop which controls FSR is displayed in operator


friendly CRT.

Startup/Shutdown Sequence and Control


Startup

Zero speed up to Operating speed.

Allows

control brings the gas turbine

proper fuel to establish

Flame & Accelerate the turbine in such a manner as to


minimize the Low cycle Fatigue of the hot gas path parts
during the sequence

Software

Command signals to Turbine Accessories, Starting device and


Fuel control system

Safe

Sequencing involves

and successful start-up

depends on proper functioning of GT equipment.

Software Sequencing ensures safe operation of Turbine

Startup/Shutdown Sequence and Control


Control

logic circuitry is associated not only with


actuating control devices, but enables protective circuits
and obtains permissive conditions before proceeding.

Control

settings play a vital role in determining the


proper sequencing.

Actual site specific control settings are generated by


GEICS,USA.

Speed

detection - by magnetic pickups

L14HR Zero-Speed (Approx. 0% TNH)


L14HM Min Speed (Approx.. 16% TNH)
L14HA Accelerating Speed (Approx. 50% TNH)
L14HS Operating speed (Approx..95% TNH)

M/s

Startup/Shutdown Sequence and Control


Actual

settings of speed relays are listed in Control

specification.
The

control constants are programmed in <RST>

processors EEPROM.
Always

ensure correct site specific, machine specific

control specification.
Consult

your system designer for any queries.

Start-up Control - FSRSU


Open

loop control

Uses preset levels of fuel command

Various

Fuel levels

Zero, Fire, Warm-up, Accelerate and Max.

Typical values for Frame-6

Fire

15.62%

Warm-up

11.62%

Accelerate

19.82%

Maximum

100%

Open Loop Control

Start-up Control - FSRSU


Startup

control FSR (FSRSU) signal operates


through the MIN value gate to ensure other control
functions can limit FSR as required.

FSRSU
FSRACC
FSRN
FSRT

FSR
MIN

FSRSYN
FSRMAN

FSR = FSRSU

Start-up Control - FSRSU


Speedtronic

Control Start-up software


generates Fuel command signal (FSR).

Speedtronic

Control Software also sets the MAX


and MIN limits for FSR for Manual Control FSR
[ FSRMIN < FSRMAN < FSRMAX ]

When

Turbine Breaks away (starts to rotate)

L14HR pick-up

Starting clutch solenoid 20CS de-energizes

Shuts down the hydraulic ratchet motor (88HR)

Acceleration Control - FSRACC


Acceleration

control software

compares the present value of Speed signal with the value at the
last sample time.
Difference between these two numbers is a measure of acceleration.

When

actual acceleration is greater acceleration reference,


FSRACC is reduced, which reduces FSR, thus reduction in
fuel supply to turbine.

During

startup-acceleration reference is a function of turbine

speed.
Acceleration

control takes over after Warm-up state.

Acceleration Control - FSRACC


Acceleration

reference is a Control constant


programmed in <RST> EEPROMS
Typical
0.35 %/sec

0.10 %/sec
0%

40% 50% 75% 95% 100%

TNH

Acceleration Control - FSRACC


FSRSU
FSRACC
FSRN
FSRT

FSR
MIN

FSRSYN
FSRMAN

FSR = FSRACC

Speed Control - FSRN


Speed

Control System software

controls the speed and load of the gas turbine


generator
in response to the actual turbine speed signal (TNH)
and the called-for speed reference(TNR)

TNH

TNR

FSRN

Speed/Load Control
Speed/Load

Reference:

Speed control software will change FSR in proportion to the


difference the actual turbine generator speed (TNH) and the
called-for reference (TNR)

Reference

95% (min) to 107% (max) for a generator drive turbine

Start-up

Speed (TNR) range

speed reference is 100.3%.

This is preset when START signal is initiated.

Turbine

follows 100.3% TNH for synchronization

Speed/Load Control
Turbine

Speed is held constant when Generator Breaker is

closed onto Power grid


Fuel

flow in excess of the necessary to maintain FSNL will

result in increased power produced by the generator.


Thereby
Speed

Speed control becomes Load control loop

Control:

Isochronous Speed control

Droop Speed Control

Isochronous Speed Control

TNH

FSRNI

TNR
FSRSU
FSRACC
FSRN (or FSRNI)
FSRT

MIN

FSR

FSRSYN
FSRMAN

FSR = FSRN

Droop Speed Control


Droop

Any change in actual speed (grid frequency) will cause a


proportional change in unit load.
This proportionality is adjustable to the desired regulation or
Droop

100 %

95%
Min TNR

Droo
p

104%

settin
g

FSNL
Full Speed No Load FSR

Speed
Reference TNR

104 %

100 %

S et p
oint

Low Speed Stop

FSR

Rated FSR

Control is a proportional control.

Speed/Load Control loop


Raise

Rate

Lower

Speed Ref.
Command

LOG
SETPOIINT

Rate

Speed Target
MANUAL
SETPOINT

Power

Primary Os

Speed
Error

Preset
Ememrgency Os

Mechanical
Os
Load Raise
Load Lower

Load Rate

Rate

LOG
SET
POIINT

Speed

Load Ref.
Cmd MANUAL
SET
POINT

Preset

Load Setpoint

SPEED
CONTROL

Speed Control Schematic


SPEED CONTROL

<RST>

FSNL
TNR
SPEED
REF.

ERROR
+

FSRN

SIGNAL

TNH
SPEED
DROOP

<RST>
RST>

SPEED CHANGER LOAD SET POINT


MAX. LIMIT

L83SD
RATE
L70R
RAISE

L83PRES
PRESET LOGIC

L70L
LOWER

MEDIAN
SELECT

PRESET
OPERATING

START-UP

L83TNROP
MIN. SELECT LOGIC

or SHUT DOWN

MIN.

TNR
SPEED
REF.

Synchronising - FSRSYN
Automatic

synchronization software

Algorithms programmed into <RST> controller and <P> software.

Bus

and Generator voltage are input signals to Protective core


<P>.

Isolation transformers are built into <P> core

<RST>

software drives the synch check and system permissive

relays.

Sequencing and algorithms are programmed into <RST> EEPROM

<P>

hardware and software sends voted command to actual


breaker closure.

Auto Synchronisation
Raise Speed

Speed

System
Frequency

Speed
Matching
Lower Speed
Speed
Raise Volts
Generator Volts

Voltage
Matching
Lower Volts

System Volts

Synchronising Scheme
<RST>
AUTO SYNCH
PERMISSIVE
Gen Volts

A
A>B

REF

B
AND

Line Volts
REF

L83AS
Auto Synch
Permissive

<XYZ>
AUTO SYNCH

A
A>B
B

Calculated Phase within Limits


Calculated slip within Limits
Calculated Acceleration
Calculated Breaker Lead Time

AND

L25
Breaker
Close

Temperature Control - FSRT


Temp.Control

software/algorithms

limit fuel flow to the turbine to maintain internal operating


temperatures within design parameters of turbine hot gas
path parts.

Highest

temperature is in the flame zone of


combustion chambers.

TTXM
TTREF

FSRT

Firing Temperature
Firing

temperature - temperature of gas as it exits the


first stage nozzle.
Speedtronic limits this firing temperature.
Firing temperature is calculated by

air

thermodynamic relation ships


GT performance calculations, and
site conditions
as a function of Exhaust Temp(Tx) and CPD
fuel

ISO FIRING TEMP TC

Exhaust temperature (Tx)

Co
ns
tF

Isothermal
irin

gT
em
p

(Li
n

ea
ri z

ed
)

Compressor Discharge Pressure (CPD)

Firing Temperature
Firing

a function of Tx and Fuel flow (FSR) and


as a function of Tx and Generator MW output
Line of constant firing temperature are used in control
software to limit the gas turbine operating temp
whereas the constant exhaust temperature limit protects the
exhaust system during start-up.
TA TB TC

TA > T B > T C

Exhaust temperature (Tx)

temperature can also be approximated as

Co
ns

tF

Isothermal
ir in

gT
em
p

(Li
n

ea
ri z

ed
)

Fuel Stroke Reference (FSR)

Exhaust Temp control software


Series

of application programs written to

perform critical exhaust temperature control and monitoring.

Major function is

Exhaust temperature control.

Software is Programmed for

Temperature control command

Temperature control bias calculations

Temperature reference selection.

Temperature Control Schematic


<RST>

If ONE Controller should fail, this TTXDR


TTXDS
program ignore the readings from the TTXDT
failed Controller. TTXM is based on
remaining controllers thermocouples.
Alarm will be generated

<RST>
Temp Control Ref

QUANTITY
of TCs Used

CORNER

REJECT
HIGH
AND
LOW

AVERAGE
REMAINING

TTRXB

SLOPE

MIN.
SELECT

+
-

CORNER
ISOTHERMAL

REJECT
LOW
TCs

TTXM

FSRMIN
FSRMAX

SLOPE

FSR

SORT
HIGHEST
TO
LOWEST

Temperature Control <RST>


-

CPD

To Comb.
Monitor

TTXD2

TTXM

+
-

MEDIAN
SELECT

FSRT

GAIN

FSR

The temp-control-command program in <RST> compares the exhaust temp control setpoint
(calculated in the temp-control-bias program and stored in computer memory) TTRXB to the
TTXM value to determine temp error. The software program converts the temp error to a FSRT

Temperature Control Bias program

SELECTED
TEMPERATURE
REFERANCE
TABLE

TT
Kn
_B

COMPUTER
MEMORY

TEMPERATURE
CONTROL
BIAS
PROGRAM

Exhuast Temperature

DIGITAL
INPUT
DATA

COMPUTER
MEMORY

CONSTANT
STORAGE

TTKn_K

TTKn_I

Isothermal

TTKn_C
CP
D

FS
R
BI
AS

BI
AS

CPD
FSR

Temperature Control Bias


Temp control Bias program calculates the Exhaust
temp control setpoint TTRXB based on CPD data
stored in computer memory and constants from the
selected temp-reference table.
This Program also calculates another setpoint based
on FSR and constants from another temperaturereference table.

TT
Kn
_M

Exhaust Temp Control Setpoints

TTKn_C (CPD bias corner) and TTKn_S (CPD bias slope)


are used with the CPD data to determine the CPD
bias exhaust temperature setpoint.
TTKn_K (FSR bias corner) and TTKn_M (FSR bias slope)
are used with the FSR data to determine the FSR
bias exhaust temperature setpoint.
Program also selects isothermal setpoint

Final temp control Ref=MIN(FSR bias, CPD bias, Isothermal setpoint (TTKn_I)

Temperature Control Bias Program

This Program selects the minimum of the three set points, CPD bias, FSR bias, or
isothermal setpoint for the final exhaust temperature control reference.

During normal operation with Gas or light Distillate fuels, this selection results in a CPD
bias control with an isothermal limit.

CPD bias setpoint is compared with the FSR bias setpoint by the program and an alarm
occurs when the CPD setpoint exceeds the FSR bias setpoint.

During normal operation with Heavy fuels, FSR bias setpoint will be selected to minimize
the turbine nozzle plugging on firing temperature.

FSR bias setpoint is compared with CPD bias setpoint and an alarm occurs when the
FSR bias setpoint exceeds the CPD bias setpoint.

A ramp function is provided in the program to limit the rate of setpoint change. Both Max
(TTKRXR1) and Min (TTKRXR2) change in ramp rates (slopes) are programmed.Typical
rate change limit is 1.5deg F.

The output of this ramp function is the Exhaust temp.control setpoint which is stored in the
computer memory.

Temperature Reference Select Program


Exhaust temperature control function selects control set points to
allow GT operation at firing temperatures.
Temperature-control-select program determines the operational
level for control set points based on Digital input information
representing temperature control requirements.
Three digital input signals are decoded to select one set of
constants which defines the control set points necessary to meet
the demand.

Typical digital signals are


BASE SELECT,
PEAK SELECT and
HEAVY FUEL SELECT

Digital
Input Data

When appropriate set of constants


are selected they are stored in the
selected-temperature-reference
memory.

Constant
Storage

Temperature
Reference
Select

Selected
Temperature
Reference
Table

Temperature
Reference
Select Program

Fuel Control system

Turbine fuel control system will change fuel flow to the combustors
in response to the fuel stroke reference signal(FSR).

FSR

actually consists of two separate signals added


together.
FSR = FSR1 + FSR2
FSR1 = Called-for liquid fuel flow
FSR2 = Called-for gas fuel flow

Standard

fuel systems are designed for operation with Liquid


fuel and/or gas fuel.

Servo Drive System

Servo drive System

The heart of Fuel Control System

3 coil Electro Hydraulic Servo Valve

Servo valve is the interface between the electrical and


mechanical systems
Servo valve controls the direction and rate of motion of a
hydraulic actuator based on the input current to the servo.
Servo valve contains three electrically isolated coils on the
torque motor.
Each coil is connected to one of the three controllers
<RST>, thereby redundancy is ensured if one of the
controller fails.
A null-bias spring positions the servo so that actuator goes
to the fail safe position when ALL power and/or control
signal is lost.

Liquid Fuel System


Liquid

Fuel handling components

Fuel system consists of

Primary fuel oil filter (low pressure)


Fuel oil stop valve
- Fuel pump
Fuel bypass valve
- Fuel oil pressure relief valve
Secondary fuel oil filter (High pressure)
Flow dividers - Combined Selector valve
False start drain valve- Fuel lines & fuel nozzles

Electrical Control components

Liquid fuel press sw (upstream) 63FL-2


Fuel oil stop valve limit sw 33FL
Fuel pump clutch solenoid 20CF
Liquid fuel pump bypass valve Servo valve 65FP
Flow divider magnetic pickups 77FD-1,2,3 and
Speedtronic Control cards TCQC and TCQA

Liquid Fuel System P&ID


<RST>

FSR1

FQ1

<RST>

FQROUT

<RST>
TCQA

TCQA
TCQC

TNH
L4
L20FLX

Flow
Divider

By-pass Valve Asm

77FD-1

65FP

Fuel
Stop
Valve

Typical
Fuel Nozzles
Combustion
Chamber

Diff Press
Guage

63FL-2

PR/A

Conn.For Purge
When Required

OFV

AD

VR4

OF
Main Fuel Pump
Accessory
Gear
Drive

33FL
OLTControl
Oil

77FD-2
77FD-3

Atomizing
Air
To Drain

False Start
Drain Valve
Chamber OFD

Fuel oil Control - Software

Control system checks the permissive L4 and L20FLX to allow FSR1


for closing the Bypass valve
(closing bypass valve sends fuel to
the combustors)

These signals control the opening and closing of the fuel oil stop valve.
Fuel pump clutch solenoid (20CF) is energised to drive the pump when
the Stop valve opens.
Fuel splitter algorithm ensures requisite FSR when FSR1 is active
FSR1 is multiplied by TNH - to make it a function of speed (an
important parameter of Turbine)

to ensure better resolution at the lower, more critical speeds where air flow
will be low.
Net result is FQROUT- a digital liquid fuel flow command
At Full speed, TNH does not change
Therefore FQROUT ~~ FSR

Fuel oil Control - Software


Analog

signal is converted to digital counts and is used in the


controllers software to compare to certain limits as well as for
display in CRT.

The

checks performed by software program

L60FFLH - Excessive fuel flow on start-up

L3LFLT

- Loss of LVDT position feedback

L3LFBSQ - Bypass valve is not fully open when the stop


is closed

valve

L3LFBSC - Servo Current is detected when stop valve is

closed

L3LFT

- Loss of flow divider feedback

(L60FFLH persists for 2 sec and this fault initiates trip, L3LFT also initiates trip
during start-up)

Fuel Gas System


Fuel

gas is controlled by

Gas Speed ratio/stop valve (SRV)


Gas Control Valve (GCV)

(Both are servo controlled by signals from Speedtronic control panel and
actuated by spring acting hydraulic cylinders moving against springloaded valve plugs)

GCV controls the desired gas fuel flow in response to the


FSR command signal.
SRV is designed to maintain a predetermined pressure (P2)
at the inlet of the GCV as a function of turbine speed

P2

P1

Fuel Supply

SRV

P3

GCV

To Turbine

Fuel Gas System


Gas

Fuel System consists of

Fuel handling components

Gas Strainer

- Speed Ratio/Stop Vlv assembly

Control valve assembly

- Dump valves

Three pressure gauges

Gas manifold with pigtails to respective fuel nozzles

Electrical control components

Gas supply press sw 63FG

- Fuel gas press xducer(s) 96FG

Gas fuel vent sol valve 20VG -LVDTs 96GC-1,2 & 96SR-1,2

Electro hydraulic servo vlv 90SR & 65GC

Speedtronic control cards TBQB and TCQC

Fuel Gas System P&ID


TCQC

FPRG
POS2
FPG

FSR2

SPEED RATIO
VALVE CONTROL

TBQB

96FG-2A
96FG-2B
96FG-2C
TRANSDUCERS

63FG-3

TCQC

TCQC

GAS
CONTROL
VALVE SERVO

GAS CONTROL
VALVE POSITION
FEEDBACK

POS1

20
VG

COMBUSTION
CHAMBER

Gas
Control
Valve

Stop
Ratio
Valve

GAS

VENT

P2
LVDTS
96SR-1.2 TRIP
Vh5-1 Dump Relay
90SR SERVO
Hydraulic Supply

LVDTS
96GC-1.2
90GC SERVO

GAS
MANIFOLD

Gas

Control Valve

GCV position is proportional to FSR2

(Actuation of spring-loaded GCV is by a hydraulic cylinder controlled by an


Electro-hydraulic servo valve)

GCV will open only when permissive L4, L20FGX and L2TVX
(purge complete) are true.

Stroke of the valve is proportional to FSR


OFFSET
GAIN

<RST>

FSR2

<RST>

L4

HI
SEL

L3GCV

TBQC

Analog
I/O

FSROUT

FSR2 goes through Fuel splitter algorithm.


TCQC converts FSROUT to an analog signal.
GAS
P2
GCV stem position is sensed by LVDTs and
fed back to an op-amp on TCQC card to compare
with FSROUT input signal at summing junction.
Op-amp on TCQC converts error signal and sends
to servo valve to drive GCV accordingly.

GCV
GCV Position Loop
Calibration

Servo
Valve

LVDTS
96GC -1,-2

LVDT
Position

Gas Control Valve

FSR

Speed Ratio/Stop Valve

It is dual function valve

(It serves as a pressure regulating valve to hold a


desired fuel gas pressure ahead of GCV)

As a Stop Valve
- integral part of protection system

<RST>

<RST>

GAIN
OFFSET

FPRG

FPG

L4
L3GCV

Fuel gas pressure P2 at the inlet of GCV is


controlled by the pressure loop as a function of
turbine speed (in proportion to the turbine speed
TNH) to become Gas fuel press Ref FPRG
TCQC card converts FPRG to analog signalP2
(FPG) is compared to the FPRG and the error
signal is in turn compared with the 96SR LVDT
feedback to reposition the valve as in GCV loop

During a trip or no-run condition, a posive voltage


bias is placed on servo coils holding them in the
valve closed position

SRV
GAS

Op Cyl
Posn
Trip Oil

Servo
Valve

A
HI
SEL

Speed Ratio/Stop Vlv has Two control loops


Position loop similar to GCV
Pressure control loop

TNH

POS2

96FG-2A
96FG-2B
96FG-2C

96SR-1,2
LVDTs

Analog
I/O
Module

TBQB

Dump
Relay

Hydraulic
Oil

SRV Pres Calibration

P2
TNH

P2 = (FPKGNG x TNH) + FPKGNO

GCV & SRV schematic


GAS FUEL CONTROL VALVE

GAS FUEL REFERENCE

GAS
CONTROL FQROUT
SERVO GAS CONTROL VALVE
VALVE
OUTPUT COMMAND
OUTPUT

GAS CONTROL VALVE POSITION

GAS RATIO VALVE CONTROL


GAS
REQUIRED PRESSURE
SPEED
CONTROL
VALVE`
OUTPUT
SPEED RATIO VALVE
SERVO COMMAND
MIDVALVE GAS FUEL PRESSURE
OUTPUT
SPEED RATIO VALVE POSITION

Duel Fuel Control


Turbines

designed to operate on both liquid and gaseous fuel


systems are equipped with Control software accordingly.

Control software performs the following:

Transfer of one fuel to other on command


Allow time for filling lines with the type of fuel to which turbine operation is
being transferred.
Mixed fuel operation
Operation of liquid fuel nozzle purge when operating totally on gas fuel.

Software

programming involves:

Fuel splitter
Fuel transfer- Liquid to Gas
Liquid fuel purge
Fuel transfer-Gas to Liquid
Mixed fuel operation logics and algorithms

Fuel splitter - software


FSR

is splitter into two signals FSR1 & FSR2 to provide


<RST>
dual fuel operation.
FUEL SPLITTER

FSR is multiplied by the liquid fuel


fraction FX1 to produce FSR1signal

MAX.LIMIT

A=B

L84TG
Total Gas

A=B

L84TL
Total LIQ

MIN.LIMIT

FSR1 is then subtracted from the


FSR signal to generate FSR2 signal

L83FZ
Permissives

MEDIAN
SELECT

RAMP

Rate

L83FG
Gas Select

FSR = FSR1 + FSR2

L83FL
Liquid Select
FSR

LIQ Ref
FSR1
FSR2
GAS Ref

Fuel transfer from Liquid to Gas


UNITS

FSR2

FSR1
PURGE
SELECT DISTILLATE

TIME

Transfer from Full Liquid to Full Gas.


FSR1
UNITS

GT running on Liquid (FSR1) and GAS transfer


selected.
FSR1 will remain at its initial value,
FSR2 will step-up to slightly greater than
Zero value (0.5%). This opens the GCV
slightly to bleed down the inter valve volume.
The presence of a high pressure than that
required by the SRV would cause slow
response in initiating gas flow.
After delay of 30 sec to bleed down the P2
pressure and fill the gas supply line, the
software program ramps the fuel commands
FSR2 to increase and FSR1 to decrease at
a programmed rate through median select
gate. Fuel transfer completes in 30 sec.

Transfer from Full Gas to Full Liquid

FSR2
PURGE
SELECT GAS

TIME

Transfer from Full Liquid to Mixture.


FSR1
UNITS

Fuel Transfer - Liquid to Gas, Gas to Liquid

FSR2
PURGE
SELECT GAS

SELECT MIX

TIME

Fuel Control System


Liquid

To prevent the coking of the liquid fuel nozzles

Mixed

fuel Purge
fuel Operation

Gas Turbine can be operated on both GAS & LIQ in any


proportion when operator choses to be on MIX mode.
Limits of fuel mixture are required to ensure proper combustion,
gas fuel distribution and gas nozzle flow velocities.
% of gas flow must be increased as load is decreased to
maintain the minimum pressure ratio across the fuel nozzle.

Modulated Inlet Guide Vane System


IGV

Bang-Bang type (2 position)


Modulated

IGV modulates during

system

acceleration of turbine at rated speed.,


loading and unloading of the generator
deceleration of gas turbine

IGV modulation maintains

proper flows and pressures, and thus the stresses in the compressor.
Maintains minimum pressure drop across fuel nozzles
in Combined cycle operations maintains high exhaust temperatures at
low loads.

Modulated Inlet Guide Vane Control


IGV Operation:

<RST>

<RST>
CSRGV CSRGV

IGV
REF

During start-up IGV is fully closed (34)


from 0% to 83% of corrected speed.

CSRGVOUT

D/A
HIGH
SELECT

Analog
I/O

Turbine speed is corrected to reflect the air


conditions at 80F, this compensates
for changes in air density as ambient conditions
HYD.
change.

CLOSE

SUPPLY

At Amb.Temp >80F TNHCOR < TNH


At Amb.Temp <80F TNHCOR > TNH

I FH6 O
N -1 U
T

OPEN

90TV-1
2

Above 83% IGV open at 6.7 per % increase in


TNHCOR.

OLT-1

TRIP OIL

VH3-1

IGV open to minimum full speed angle 57 and


stop opening at 91% TNH

C2
OD

ORIFICES (2)

HM 3-1

Inlet Guide Vane Operation


By not allowing the guide vanes to close to an angle less than than
the min full speed angle at 100%TNH, a min press drop is maintained
across the fuel nozzles, thereby lessening combustion system
resonance.
IGV ANGLE - DEG (CSRGV))

For Simple Cycle operation


IGV move to full open position at pre-selected
exhaust temperature,
usually 700F.
For Combined Cycle operation,
IGV begins to move to full open pos.
as exh.temp approaches Temp.
Control ref. temperature

Fuel Open Max. Angle

Simple Cycle
(CSKGVSSR)

Combined
Cycle
(TTRX)

MIN Full Speed Angle


Startup
Program

(Normally IGVs begin open when Tx is within

Region Of Negative
5th Stage Extraction
Pressure

30F of temp control Ref.)


0

100
100

Corrected Speed -% 0
(TNCHOR) FSNL

BASE LOAD
EXHUAST TEMPERATURE

IGV Control Schematic


Temp. Control
Feedback
Temp. Control
Reference

Compressor
Inlet Temp.

Speed

Manual
Command

IGV
Part IGV Part Speed Ref.
Speed
Ref.

IGV Position

Inlet
Guide
Vane
Ref.

Servo IGV
Output Command
IGV Reference

Wet Low NOx Control


Gas dP
Gas Press Gas Gas Fuel Flow
Gas Temp

Basic
Injection Flow

Flow

Liq Fuel Flow


Humidity

Required
Injection Injection
Flow
Flow

Power Augmentation
Flow

Water Flow

Select

Steam
Steam Press
Steam Temp

Steam
Flow

Injection
Flow

+
_

Dead band
Controller Lower

Injection Flow