Sie sind auf Seite 1von 65

Level 1

Fundamental Training

Level 1 - Flow

Contents
Topics:
Slide No:
Why measure flow? 3 - 4
Flow terminology
5 - 18
Flowmeter selection 19 - 24
DP flowmeters 25 - 46
Velocity flowmeters 47 - 55
Mass flowmeters
56 - 61
Displacement meters 62
Rosemount flow products summary
Exercise 64 - 65

63

Level 1 - Flow

Why measure flow?


5 Common Reasons

Safety
Uncontrolled flow rates may cause
temperature & pressure to reach dangerously high levels
turbines & other machinery to overspeed
tanks to spill

Custody Transfer
the measurement of fluid passing from a supplier to a customer
cash register of the system
example a local gas station measures how much gas being pumped into the
vehicle for billing
requires high measurement accuracy

Product Integrity
ensuring right amount of blended materials in for example processed food &
gasoline

Level 1 - Flow

Why measure flow?


5 Common Reasons

Efficiency Indication
to determine efficiency of process by
measuring the amount of each input that has gone into the
product
comparing the above measurement to the amount of product
produced

Process Variable Control


Flow rate is measured & controlled during energy transfer
application, for example
heat exchanger
fluid temperature controlled by varying the flow rate of
steam

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Flow Control Loop

Flow Loop Issues:


May be a Very Fast Process
Noise in Measurement Signal
May Require Filtering
May Require Fast-Responding Equipment

Typically Requires Temperature Compensation


I/P

FIC
FT

TT

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Fluid Properties

Density: rho) = m/V = mass/volume


Mass per unit volume at given operating conditions.
Common units: kg/m3 or lb/ft3
Density of a liquid varies with temperature
Density of a gas varies with temperature and pressure

Liquids

Gases

Temperature = Density
Temperature = Density

Temperature = Density
Temperature = Density

Pressure = No change
Pressure = No change

Pressure = Density
Pressure = Density

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Fluid Properties

For Liquids,
Specific Gravity =

Density of liquid at process temperature


Density of water at 15.6C

For Gases,

Specific Gravity =

Molecular Weight of gas


Molecular Weight of air

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Fluid Properties

Gas Compressibility Factor: Z-factor


Used to correct gas equations for real-gas effects. Accounts for the deviation from the ideal situation.

For an ideal gas Z=1 and PV=nRT(Ideal Gas Law).


The True Gas Law: PV=ZnRT
Z & n Can be found in engineering tables.
R is dependant on units chosen for P, T & V

Absolute pressure

Absolute temperature

PV = nRT
Volume

Universal gas constant


Molecular weight

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Fluid Properties

Viscosity
Measure of a fluids tendency to resist a shearing force, or to resist flow

A greater force is required to shear high viscosity fluids than low viscosity fluids (viscosity = shear stress/shear rate).
Viscosity normally decreases with an increase in temperature for a liquid, but increases with an increase in temperature for a gas

Area
Fluid
Thickness

Force

Water is 1cP, peanut butter is 10,000 cP

Fixed Plate

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Fluid Properties

10

Fluid Type
Clean Fluid
A fluid that is free from solid particles, e.g. clean water.
Dirty Fluid
A fluid containing solid particles, e.g. muddy water.
Slurry
A liquid with a suspension of fine solids, e.g. pulp and paper, or oatmeal.
Steam
Water vapour
Gas
Natural gas

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Fluid Properties
Flow Profile

11

Pipe Wall

Lower velocity at the edge

Higher velocity in the middle

Lower velocity at the edge

Laminar Flow

Turbulent Flow
Transition Flow

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Fluid Properties

12

Reynolds number defines the state of fluid flow


Dimensionless number
Indicates flow profile

Laminar
0

4000

2000

Reynolds
Number

Turbulent

Transition

m/s

kg/m3

(Pipe I.D.) ( Velocity) (Density)


Viscosity kg/ms

Rd = ( x v x D)/
Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Fluid Properties

13

Example:
Flow conditions; Velocity = 0.5 m/s
density = 995.7kg/m
RD = V.d. /
Temperature = 25C
Viscosity
= 0.7 /= 1000
0.7cP kg/ms
Pipe ID = 60mm

= 0.5 x 0.06 x 995.7 x 1000 /0.7


(1 Poise = 0.1 kg/m s)

= 42,673

i)
ii)

Find the Reynolds number for the fluid.


Identify the type of flow.

(a) Laminar
(b) Transitional
(c) Turbulent

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Fluid Properties

14

Pressure & Temperature changes inside process pipe determines which state
the steam is in
Saturated steam (all vapor)
Steam exactly at its saturation point (SP)
temperature & pressure at which liquid turns to vapor (as pressure increases, saturation
temperature increases)

Superheated steam
Steam when pressure drop below SP
Steam when temperature rise above SP
e.g. at 350 psia, saturation temperature for water is 222C.
Steam at 350 psia & 278C includes 56C of super heat

Quality steam ( mixture of water liquid & vapor)


Condensed steam when pressure rise above SP
Condensed steam when temperature drop below SP

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Pipe Geometry & Conditions

15

Texture of inner walls


smooth wall slightly increase fluid velocity
rough wall slightly decrease fluid velocity
Inside diameter
e.g., doubling the diameter increase flow rate by
as much as 4 times
Vol. flow rate(Qv) = Cross-section area * Velocity
= D2/4 * Velocity
= D2(/4 x Velocity)

Qv
Qv

=
=

(2D)2 * (/4 x Velocity)


4 (D2 * (/4 x Velocity))
Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Pipe Geometry & Conditions

16

Flow Profile Disturbance


factors that cause flow profile to become irregular
symmetrical profile
caused by reducers or expanders pipe sections
eliminated by inserting appropriate length of straight pipes

asymmetrical profile
caused by elbows, valves and tees
eliminated by inserting appropriate length of straight pipes

swirl
caused by pumps, compressors, or two pipe elbows in different
planes
eliminated by inserting flow conditioners

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Engineering Units

17

Volumetric Flow Rate


Metric Unit Others
StdCuft/s
StdCuft/min
StdCuft/h
StdCuft/d
StdCum/h
StdCum/d
NmlCum/h
NmlCum/d

Std
Nml

m3/s
- Standard Cubic feet per second
- Standard Cubic feet per minute
- Standard Cubic feet per hour
- Standard Cubic feet per day
- Standard Cubic meter per hour
- Standard Cubic meter per day
- Normal Cubic meter per hour
- Normal Cubic meter per day

- reference to 14.696 psi Atm. at 68 deg.F


- reference to 101.325 Atm. At 0 deg.C
Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Engineering Units
Mass Flow Rate
Metric Unit Others
lbs/sec
lbs/min
lbs/hour
lbs/day
gram/sec
grams/min
grams/hour
kg/min
kg/hour

18

kg/s
- Pounds per second
- Pounds per minute
- Pounds per hour
- Pounds per day
- grams per second
- grams per minute
- grams per hour
- kilograms per minute
- kilogram per hour

Level 1 - Flow

Flowmeter selection
Specification

19

Accuracy
% of rate
uncertainty of flow proportional to flow rate
Rate of Flow
100 gpm
50 gpm
20 gpm

% of Rate Accuracy
2% of 100 gpm
2% of 50 gpm
2% of 20 gpm

Uncertainty Range
98-102 gpm
49-51 gpm
19.6-20.4 gpm

% of full scale
uncertainty of flow remains constant
Rate of Flow
100 gpm
50 gpm
20 gpm

% of Rate Accuracy
2% of 100 gpm
2% of 50 gpm
2% of 20 gpm

Uncertainty Range
98-102 gpm
49-51 gpm
19.6-20.4 gpm
Level 1 - Flow

Flowmeter selection
Specification

20

Rangeability (Turndown)
Meter maximum
maximum flow rate that a flowmeter is capable of reading
commonly used for magnetic, vortex and Coriolis meters

Application maximum
maximum flowrate that occurs in the process flow of a
particular application
commonly used for orifice plates, flow nozzles, and venturi
tubes

Repeatability
the ability of a flowmeter to produce the same
measurement each time it measures a flow

Level 1 - Flow

Flowmeter selection
Classes of Flowmeters

21

Flow Technologies
Mass

Volumetric

Head

Coriolis Meter
Thermal Meter

Positive
Velocity
Meter Displacement
Meter

DP Flow Target
Meter
Meter

Magnetic
Vortex
Ultrasonic
Turbine

Oval
Nutating disc
Gear
Gerotor

Annubar
Orifice
Venturi
Nozzle
Elbow Taps
Level 1 - Flow

Flowmeter selection
Classes of Flowmeters

22

. Displacement Meters
measure volume flow rate Qv directly by
repeatedly trapping a sample of the fluid.
total volume = sample volume * number of samples
High pressure loss

Head Meters (DP Flow Meters)


measures fluid flow indirectly by creating &
measuring a differential pressure by means of a
restriction to the fluid flow

Level 1 - Flow

Flowmeter selection
Classes of Flowmeters

23

Velocity Meters
FLOW is measured inferentially by measuring
VELOCITY through a known AREA.
With this indirect method, the flow measured is the
volume flow rate, Qv. Stated in its simplest term
QV = A * v where
A:
v:

cross-sectional area of the pipe


fluid velocity

m3/s = m2 * m/s
A reliable flow measurement is dependent upon the correct
measurement of A and v.

Level 1 - Flow

Flowmeter selection
Classes of Flowmeters

24

Mass Meters
Infer the mass flow rate via the equation;
Qm = Qv * where,
Qm:

the mass flow rate

Qv :
:

the volume flow rate


fluid density

kg/s = m3/s * kg.m3


Consist of 2 devices;
One device will measure fluid velocity
The other device will measure fluid density

Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation

25

Flow Restriction in Line cause a differential Pressure


Line Pressure
(Primary Element)
Orifice Plate

H.P.

L.P.

QV= K

DP
Constant
Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation
Pressure
Transmitter

26

Flow Controller
FIC

FT

DP volumetric
flow
Control
Valve

Primary
Element

FE

QV= K

DP

Outputs represent true flow only under specified conditions.


Using constants in flow equations assumes a static flow
environment.
For DP flowmeter output to represent true flow,
flow the following
fluid properties must be constant:
Fluid density
Fluid viscosity,

Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation

27

For varying fluid density and viscosity


Compensation is required to represent TRUE flow

QM= K

DP*(P/T)

Partial
Compensation

Takes care of
Density only

Mass Flow, QM

=
=
=

Volumetric flow * Density


m
3/s * kg/m
3
kg/s

Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation

28

Traditionally way of partially compensated DP mass


flow has been accomplished using a system.

Pressure
Transmitter PT
(AP)

Pressure
Transmitter
(DP)
FT

Flow Computer
FC

TT Temperature
Transmitter +
Sensor

FIC Flow
Controller
Control
Valve

Primary
FE
Element

QM= K

DP*(P/T)
Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation

29

3095 MultivariableTM Flow Transmitter


3 Process Sensors used as inputs
to Mass Flow Calculation:
RTD Temperature Sensor Input
Differential Pressure Sensor
Piezoresistive Static Pressure Sensor

QM= N Cd E Y d2

DP*(P/T)

These constants takes care of


velocity of the fluid
friction of the fluid in contact with the pipe
viscosity of the fluid
to give a fully compensated dynamic flow measurement
Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation

30

Discharge Coefficient (Cd)


Cd is a correction factor to the theoretical equation.
Q M= K

DP*(P/T)

Cd

Actual_flow

Theoretical_flow

Equations for calculating Cd are derived from experimental data.


Cd is a function of beta ratio and Reynolds number, and is different
for each primary element. (Beta ratio = restriction diam. / pipe diam.)

Gas Expansion Factor (Y1)


Density is NOT constant for gases.
Y 1 f , k , P , P 1

for Liquids:

k is the isentropic exponent, a


property of gases:

Y1 1
Cp
Cv

=<1
Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation

31

Discharge Coefficient vs. RD


Cd

Concentric Square-edge Orifice

CONSTANT
102

103

LIQUIDS

104

105

RD

GASES
Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation

32

Discharge Coefficient vs. RD &


Orifice Plate Discharge Coefficients

0.66

( 4 Flange Taps )

Discharge Coefficient

0.65
0.64

Beta Values are


almost constant

0.63
0.62
0.61
0.6
0.59
0

4
5 10

Beta = .75
Beta = .6
Beta = .5
Beta = .4
Beta = .2

5
1 10

5
1.5 10

5
5
5
2 10
2.5 10
3 10
Pipe Reynolds Number

5
3.5 10

5
4 10

5
4.5 10

5
5 10

Orifice Diam. / Pipe Diam. = Beta

d/D =
Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation

33

Gas Expansion Factor vs. DP


Gas Expansion Factors

Gas Expansion Factor

0.95

0.9

0.85

Line
Pressure

The higher the line pressure, the


more constant Gas Expansion
Factor for a variety of DP
0

20

40

1000 psi
250 psi
100 psi
50 psi
20 psi

60

80

100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260


Differential Pressure (inH2O)

( k=1.3, beta = 0.6 )


Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
Components

34

DP Flow Meters consist of two main components:


Primary

Secondary -

SECONDARY

placed in the pipe to restrict the flow.


Orifice, Venturi, nozzle, Pitot-static tube, elbow,
and wedge.
measures the differential pressure.
Using well-established conversion
coefficients which depends on the type
of head meter used and the diameter of
the pipe, a measurement of the
differential pressure may be translated
into a volume rate.
PRIMARY
Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
Orifice Plate

35

Simplest and least expensive.


Constrict fluid flow to produce diff. pressure across the plate.
Produce high pressure upstream and low pressure
downstream.
Flow proportional to square of the flow velocity.
Greater overall pressure loss compared to other primary
devices.
Cost does not increase significantly with pipe size (advantage).

Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
Venturi Tube

36

Gradually narrows the diameter of pipe.


Resultant drop in pressure is measured.
Pressure recovers at the expanding section of the meter.
For low pressure drop and high accuracy reading applications
Widely used in large diameter pipes.
High Pressure Side

Cross
section
Area A1 Flow

P1 P2

Low Pressure Side

Cross section
Area A2

Q (Actual) =

C x A1 x A2
( A12 - A22 )

2 x ( P1 -P2 )

Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
Flow Nozzle

37

High velocity flow meter.


Elliptical restriction of flow at nozzle opening.
No outlet area for pressure recovery.
For application where turbulence is high (Re > 50000)
eg.,stream flow at high temperatures.
Pressure drop falls betw. That of venturi tube and orifice plate
(30-95%)
D

High Pressure

FLOW

D/2

Low Pressure

NOZZLE
Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
Pitot Tube

38

Bernoullis energy balance for an


incompressible, non-viscous fluid:
Pf 1

Pf 2

Vf 1

Pf 1

V f 12

2 gc

Pf 2

Stagnation Pressure Sensing - measures a point velocity.

Theoretical Point Velocity

Vf 1

2 gc Pf 2 Pf 1

In order to measure accurate flow rate, a pitot traverse is required.


Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
Pitot Tube

39

High (Impact) Pressure Tap

Low (Static) Pressure Tap

Fluid Flow

High pressure port

Static pressure port

One-point velocity measurement


accuracy affected by changes in velocity profile
tube must be moved back & forth in the flow
stream for average measurement
Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
Averaging Pitot Tube (Annubar)
High Pressure Tap

40

Low Pressure Tap

Sharp Edge
Blunt
Front

H.P.

L.P.

Blunt
Rear

Cross section
of Annubar

Fluid Flow

Include several measurement ports over the entire


diameter of the pipeline
more accurate flow measurement than the regular
pitot tube
Level 1 - Flow

DP Flowmeter
Pitot Tube

41

Advantages:
Can be inserted through a small opening.
Can sample the velocity at many points.
Low pressure drop, non-obstrusive.
Disadvantages:
Pitot traverse requires a technician, and is time-consuming.
Pitot tube is fragile (not suited for industrial app.)
DP signal is low.
Accuracy depends on the velocity profile.
Easily plugged by foreign material in the fluid.

Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
Wedge Flow Element

42

inserted in the process pipe


forms a wedged obstruction on the inner wall of
the pipe
usually used with remote seals for measuring
dirty fluids, slurries & fluids at high viscosity (low
RD) that tends to build up or clog orifice plates

Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
V-Cone

43

high accuracy
normally lab-calibrated
work equally well with short and long straight pipes
for customers who have limited room for straight
piping requirements
can be used with some dirty fluids

Level 1 - Flow

Head Meter
Rotameter

44

Variable-area flowmeters
float inside the tapered tube rises in response to fluid flow rate
pressure is higher at the bottom than the top of the tapered tube
float rests where the dp between upper & lower surfaces of the
float balances the weight of the float
flowrate read direct from scale or electronically

commonly used for indication only

Level 1 - Flow

Head Meter
Target Meter

45

A disc is centered in the pipe


with surface positioned at right
angle to the fluid flow.
Force of the fluid acting against
the target directly measures the
fluid flow rate.
Requires no external
connections, seals or purge
systems.
Useful for dirty or corrosive
fluids.

Level 1 - Flow

Head Meter
Target Meter
Advantages:
Low cost
Easily installed and/or
replaced
No moving parts
Suitable for most gases
or liquids
Available in a wide
range of sizes and
models

46

Disadvantages:
Square-root head/flow
relationship
High permanent
pressure loss
Low accuracy
Flow rage normal 4:1
Accuracy affected by
wear and/or damage of
the flow primary element
especially with corrosive
fluids.
Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter
Magnetic Flowmeter

47

Faradays Law of electromagnetic


Conductive
induction.
Process
A voltage will be induced in a Medium
conductor moving through a Lining
magnetic field.
E = kBDV
Sensing

Variable Flow Rate


(Feet Per Second)
SST Tube
Flange

Electrodes

E = magnitude of induced voltage

V = velocity of the conductor


D = width of the conductor
E
B = strength of the magnetic field
k = proportionality constant

Field Coils

Magnetic Field B
(Constant Strength)

As the conductive process liquid moves through the field with


average velocity V, the electrodes sense the induced voltage.
Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter
Magnetic Flowmeter
Advantages:
Obstructionless flow
Unaffected by viscosity,
pressure, temperature and
density
Good accuracy
No RD constraints
Suitable for slurries and
corrosive, nonlubricating, or
abrasive liquids
Wide rangeability (30:1)

48

Disadvantages:
Liquid must be
electrically conductive
Not suitable for gases
Can be expensive,
particularly in small
sizes
Must be installed so that
the meter is always full

Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter
Turbine Meter

Consist of multi-blade rotors


supported by bearings and
enclosed in a pipe section.
perpendicular to fluid flow.
Fluid flow drives the rotor.
Rotor Blades
Rotor velocity is proportional to
overall volume flow rate.
Magnetic lines of flux created by a
magnetic coil outside the meter.

49

Pickup Probe

FLOW

An alternating voltage is produced as each blades cuts the


magnetic lines of flux. Each pulse represents a discrete volume
of liquid.

Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter
Turbine Meter
Advantages:
High accuracy
Rangeability 10:1
Very good repeatability
Low pressure drops
Can be used on high
viscosity fluids (but with
lower turndowns)

50

Disadvantages:
Moving parts subject to wear
Can be damaged by
overspeeding
High temperature,
overspeeding, corrosion,
abrasion and pressure transient
can shorten bearing life
Rather expensive
Filtration required in dirty fluids

Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter
Vortex Flowmeter

51

von karman effect (vortex


shedding)
As fluid pass a bluff body, it
Force on
separates and generates small
Sensor
eddies/vortices that are shed
alternately along and behind
each side of the bluff body.
This vortices cause areas ofPivoting
fluctuating pressure that are Axis
detected by a sensor.
Shedder
The frequency of vortex
Bar
generation is directly
proportional to fluid velocity.

Sensor

FLOW
Vortex
Shedder
Force

Shedder Bar

FLOW

Vortices
Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter
Vortex Flowmeter
Advantages:
Good accuracy
Usually wide flow range
Used with liquids, gases
and steam
Minimal maintenance (no
moving parts)
Good linearity over the
working range

52

Disadvantages:
Not suitable for abrasive or
dirty fluids
Straight upstream pipe
required equal to 30 times
pipe diameter or longer
Limited by low velocity (RD
< 10,000)

Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter
Ultrasonic Flowmeters

53

uses sound waves to determine flow rates of fluids.


Transit-Time Method
2 piezoelectric transducers mounted opposing, to focus
sound waves between them at 45 angle to the direction of
flow within a pipe. In a simultaneous measurement in the
opposite direction to fluid flow, a value (determined
electronically) is linearly proportional to the flow rate.
Transmitter
Upstream Transducer

Receiver

FLOW

Downstream Transducer
Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter
54
Ultrasonic Flowmeters
uses sound waves to determine flow rates of fluids.

Doppler Effect Method


One of the 2 transducer mounted in the same case on one
side of the pipe transmits sound waves (constant
frequency) into the fluid. Solids or bubbles within the fluid
reflect the sound back to the receiver element. Frequency
difference is directly proportional to the flow velocity in the
pipe.

Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter
Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Advantages:
Non-intrusive,
obstructionless
Wide rangeability (10:1)
Easy to install (especially
for clamp-on version)
Cost virtually
independent of pipe size
The flow measurement is
bi-directional

55

Disadvantages:
Maximum temperature 150C
Particular fluid conditions are
required (TOF-type: clean
liquids; Doppler-type: particles
or impurities in the stream)
Not very high accuracy (about
2%)
Doppler flowmeter clamp-on
type requires a pipe of
homogeneous material
(cement or fibreglass linings
must be avoided)
Level 1 - Flow

Mass Meter
Coriolis Meter

56

Operating Principle

Uses a obsructionless U-shaped tube as a sensor


Applies Newtons 2nd Law of Motion to determine flow rate.
Force = mass x acceleration
The flow tube vibrates at its natural frequency by an
electromagnetic drive system.

Level 1 - Flow

Mass Meter
Coriolis Meter

57

Coriolis Effect
Fluid flowing through the upward moving tube, pushes
downward against the tube.
Fluid flowing out through the downward moving tube,
pushes upward against the tube.
The combination of upward and downward resistive forces
causes the sensor tube to twist (coriolis effect).

Level 1 - Flow

Mass Meter
Coriolis Meter

58

Signal Transmission
The amount the tube twist is proportional to the mass flow
rate of the fluid flowing through it.
Electromagnetic sensors located at each side of the tube
measures the respective velocity of the vibrating tube at
these points.
The sensor sends this information to the transmitter which
gives an output signal directly proportional to mass flow
rate.

Level 1 - Flow

Mass Meter
Coriolis Meter
Advantages:
High accuracy: 0.25%
Relatively low pressure
drops
Suitable for liquid and
gas flow
Easy to install
Flow range (10:1)

59

Disadvantages:
Expensive
Mounting is critical (no
vibration)
Heat-tracing is required
in some applications

Level 1 - Flow

Mass Meter
Thermal Meter

60

Works on the principle of heat transfer by the fluid flow


Made up o 3 elements arranged along the direction of motion.
high accurate temperature sensor at upstream
an electrical heater in between
high accurate temperature sensor at downstream
The difference between the two temperature readings is
proportional to the mass flow rate. (if the thermal properties of
the fluid being metered are constant and known).

Level 1 - Flow

Mass Meter
Thermal Meter
Advantages:
No moving parts
Suitable for large size
pipe (insertion type)
Good rangeability (50:1)
Accuracy: 1% FS
Low permanent pressure
losses

61

Disadvantages:
Meter sensitive to fluid heat
conductivity, viscosity, and
specific heat
Mostly gas service (only rare
liquid service)
Specific heat of the fluid
must be known and constant
i.e. the gas must have a
constant composition
Proper operation requires no
heat losses due to
conductive exchanges
though the pipe walls
Level 1 - Flow

Displacement flowmeter
Oval Gear Meter

62

An example of positive displacement meter


Two meshing oval gears rotate as fluid flows through them
Gears trap a known quantity of fluid as they rotate
Each complete revolution of both the gears = 4 * amount of
fluid that fills the space between the gear and the meter
body
volumetric flow rate is directly proportional to the rotational
velocity of the gears

Level 1 - Flow

Rosemount flow products


Summary Table

63

Meter

Fluids

Dirty
Fluids

Viscosity

DP/Orifice

Liquid,Gas,steam

No

Low-Medium 0.5 - 40in

6000psig

Medium-High

MV/Orifice

Liquid,Gas,steam

No

Low-Medium 0.5 - 40in

6000psig

Medium-High

Some

Low

0.5 - 72+in 6000psig


0.2 - 36in

MV/Annubar Liquid,Gas,steam

Pipe
Size

Maximum Maximum Pressure


Pressure Temp.
Loss

Magmeter

Conductive Fluids Yes

Any

Vortex

Liquid,Gas,steam

Some

Low-Medium 0.5 - 8in

1400psig

Coriolis

All

Yes

Any

4000psig

200C

High*

Turbine

Liquid,Gas,steam

No

Low-Medium 0.5 - 24in

6000psig

200C

High

0.5 - 6in

1400psig

Low
175C

Very Low
Low

Level 1 - Flow

Exercise

64

1. Which of the following would generally provide the best turndown ?


(A) DP - Orifice Plate
(C)
Magnetic Flowmeter
(B) V.A.Meter
(D)
Turbine Meter
Which of the following directly measures mass flow rate, and which
volume flow rate. Indicate M or V
2. Magnetic Flowmeter
[
]
3. Vortex Meter
[
]
4. Coriolis Meter
[
]
5. Non-compensated DP Flowmeter
[
]
6. Fully-compensated DP Flowmeter
[
]

Level 1 - Flow

Exercise

65

7. The following flowmeters all create some pressure loss. Number


them in order, beginning with that which create the least loss.
(A) Venturi tube
[
]
(B) Positive displacement meter
[
]
(C) Magnetic flowmeter
[
]
(D) Vortex Meter
[
]
(E) Annubar
[
]
(F) Orifice plate
[
]

Level 1 - Flow