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Makanan dan Sistem


Pecernaan makanan

Tri Jalmo
Program Studi Pend. Biologi FKIP
Unila
Tri Jalmo - BIO FKIP Unila

Cara memperoleh makanan


1. Autotrof
2. Heterotrof
Strategi untuk mendapatkan makanan
1.Absorpsi = melalui seluruh permukaan tubuh c/ endoparasit
(cacing hati, cacing pita,dll), protozoa, invertevarata akuatik
Proses sistem tranport aktif trasnport dg prot.karier, dg
kotranspor
2. endositosis = pinositosis/fagositosis dg lisosom. C/ Protozoa
3. filter feeding dan menjerat = di perairan dan umumnya hwn-hwn
sesil c/ flagellata, ciliata, kecuali paus, hiu
4.menusuk mengisap menjilat pd Platyhelmintes, nematoda,
annelida, arthropoda.
menggunakan zat antikoagulan dan proteolitik
Probosis untuk mengisap cairan. Ada 2 saluran: (1) ventral :
antikoagulan/proteolitik, dan (2) dorsal : cairan tubuh inang
5. toksin menangkap - membunuh c/ coelenterara dg nematocyst
Annelida, gastropoda, anthropoda dg neurotoxin
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The feeding of Paramecium itself is also internal digestion:

cilia movement

1
2
5
4
3

Intracellular food digestion:


Golgi
lysosome
enzymes

endoplasmic
reticulum

phagocytosis

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

subunits
exocytosis
food vacuole

digestive vacuole

phagocytosis of food
food vacuole and lysosome formation
lysosome + food vacuole = digestive vacuole
enzymatic digestion of food
absorption of subunits
exocytosis of waste

waste

Phylum Porifera: Sponges


Types of digestive systems:
None (intracellular digestion)
Phylum Porifera (sponges)

Phylum Cnidaria

Digestive Systems
Types of digestive systems:
Open sac (gastrovascular cavity)
Phylum Cnidaria (jellyfish, sea anemone, Hydra)

Enzymes
secreted from
cells lining
cavity
Two-way
system (food
and waste
enter and
leave mouth)
No
specialization

Hewan rendah memiliki kantung


pencerna dengan satu lubang
Ini dinamakan sebagai rongga gastrovascular
Contoh : hydra
Mouth
Tentacle

Flagella

Hydrolytic
enzymes

Food
particle
Food
(Daphnia,
a water
flea)

Engulfment
Gastro- of food
vascular particle
cavity
Digestion in
food vacuole

Figure 21.3A

Gastrovascular cavity digestion in Cnidarian polyp


gland cell secretes digestive enzymes to
disintegrate prey item into smaller particles

and
anus!

digestive cell takes in smaller particles for intracellular digestion


This is a combination of external and internal digestion
There is also a unique prey capture process in cnidarians

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Phylum Platyhelminthes

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In flatworms, such as Dugesia, and like cnidarians, the mouth is also


the anusthe digestive system is a blind pouch.

Digestive Systems
Types of digestive systems:
One-way digestive systems
Phylum Annelida (earthworm)
Phylum Arthropoda (grasshopper, crayfish)
Phylum Chordata (frog)

Tube-within- one-way system


tube body plan (food enters
mouth, leaves

Specialization
of digestive
tasks

Mollusca

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The digestive system


vertebrata

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Basic Organization

Mouth
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Large intestine
Anus

Associated Structures

Pancreas
Liver
Gallbladder
Salivary glands

Contribute to small
intestinal digestion

Types of Digestive Systems

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Digestive Systems
Specialization in vertebrate digestive systems:

Gastrointestinal tract
Mouth and structures to grind or
break apart food

Mammals: teeth
Sharp, pointed canines to
tear flesh
Large, flat teeth to grind
plants
Birds: gizzard (swallow grit)
Saliva released in mouth -- moisten
food and releases salivary amylase
Food swallowed and passes through
pharynx to esophagus

For food
storage

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FUNCTIONS

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Gastrointestinal Tract Activities


Ingestion taking food into the digestive tract
Propulsion swallowing and peristalsis
Peristalsis waves of contraction and relaxation of
muscles in the organ walls
Mechanical digestion chewing, mixing, and churning
food
Chemical digestion catabolic breakdown of food
Absorption movement of nutrients from the GI tract
to the blood or lymph
Defecation elimination of indigestible solid wastes
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Tri Jalmo - BIO FKIP Unila

Microscopic Anatomy of the Stomach


Glands of the Stomach Fundus
and Body

Gastric glands of the cardia and pylorus


Secrete mucus
Gastric glands of the pyloric antrum
Secrete hormones
Gastric glands of the fundus and body
have a variety of secretory cells
1. Mucous neck cells secrete acid mucus
2. Parietal cells secrete HCl and intrinsic
factor
Chief cells produce pepsinogen
Pepsinogen is activated to pepsin by: HCl
in the stomach
Enteroendocrine cells secrete gastrin,
histamine, endorphins, serotonin,
cholecystokinin (CCK), and somatostatin
into the lamina propria
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Regulation and Mechanism of HCl


Secretion
HCl secretion is stimulated
by ACh, histamine, and
gastrin through secondmessenger systems
Release of hydrochloric
acid:
- Is low if only one ligand
binds to parietal cells
- Is high if all three
ligands bind to parietal
cells
Antihistamines block H2
receptors and decrease
HCl release
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Pancreatic Juice
Clear, watery
juice
Enters
duodenum via
pancreatic duct
Aids in fat,
starch, and
protein
digestion

Contains

HCO3-

Trypsinogen
ProChymotrypsinogen
enzymes
Procarboxypeptidas
e
Amylase
Lipase
Nuclease

Importance of Pancreas for


Digestion
Produces enzymes responsible for
50% of carbohydrate digestion
50% of protein digestion
90% of lipid digestion

Produces sodium bicarbonate for


neutralization of chyme in duodenum

Activation of Pancreatic
Enzymes
Enterokinase
Secreted from crypts in duodenum
Trypsinogen
trypsin

Trypsin then converts:


Trypsinogen
trypsin
Chymotrypsinogen
chymotrypsin
Procarboxypeptidase
carboxypeptidase

Overview of Digestive Enzymes


Stomach
Pepsinogen
Chymosin (rennin)

Pancreas

Trypsinogen
Chymotrypsinogen
Procarboxypeptidase
Amylase
Lipase
Nuclease

Brush Border (SI)

Sucrase
Maltase
Lactase
Aminopeptidase
Dipeptidase
Enterokinase

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Bile
Green, viscous liquid
Alkaline ph (neutralize acidic chyme)
Secreted by liver via bile duct to duodenum
Stored in gall bladder (except in horses)
Functions to emulsify fats
Composition
Bile salts (glycocholic and taurocholic acids)
Bile pigments (bilirubin and biliverdin)
Cholesterol
95% reabsorbed and returned to liver
NOT AN ENZYME

Nutrient Digestion - Lipids

Large Lipid Droplet

Action of bile salts


Lipid emulsion
Small

Bile salts & pancreatic lipase


and colipase
Water soluble micelles

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Specialized Cells Lining


Villi
Nutrients
Mucus
Absorptive
epithelial cell
Contain brush
border on
lumen/apical
side
Brush border:
Enzymes
Nutrient transport
molecules

Goblet cell
Secretes mucus

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Peristalsis and Segmentation

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Gerak segmental
1 ~ 5 cm

and cutting

Small Intestine
Food bolus

Relaxation

Contraction

Relaxation

Food bolus

Food bolus

Segmentation motility of Small Intestine.


Number represents different periods of small intestine

Gerak peristaltik usus halus

Orad

caudad

Absorption

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Absorption

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Absorption

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defecation

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