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MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK

Prepared
By :

INTRODUCTION

.Since 1970s wireless network become popular as it

enables mobility.
There are currently 2 variations of mobile network

Infrastructured network.
Infrastructure less network.

A mobie adhoc network is a infrastructure less network


allows us to communicate emergency search & rescue
operations.

It is one pf the most vibrant & active new fields today is


that of adhoc network
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MANET

Definition:- An ad-hoc mobile network is a collection of mobile

nodes that are dynamically and arbitrarily located in such a


manner that the interconnections between nodes are capable of
changing on a continual basis.

MANETs are self-forming, self-maintained, and self-healing,


allowing for extreme network flexibility

A MANET consists of mobile platforms (e.g., a router with

multiple hosts and wireless communications devices) known


as"nodes"--which are free to move about arbitrarily.

ARCHITECTURE OF MANET

It differs from traditional centralized wireless network


as MANET has

No centralized control.

Nodes itself has to provide routing and MAC layers


functions.

CHARACTERISTICS OF MANETS

Dynamic topologies.

Bandwidth-constrained, variable capacity links.

Energy-constrained operation.

Limited physical security.

IP-Layer Mobile Routing .

MANET Routing Protocol Performance Issues.

MANET ROUTING PROTOCOLS

The following is a list of quantitative metrics


that can be used to assess the performance
of any routing protocol.

End-to-end data throughput and delay.


Route Acquisition Time.
Efficiency.

Factors affecting efficiency of a protocol:

Average number of data bits transmitted/data bit

delivered.
Average number of control bits transmitted/data
bit delivered

PERFORMANCE MEASURE OF MANET PROTOCOL

The following factors measure the performance of a protocol.


Network size.

Topological rate of change.


Link capacity.
Fraction of unidirectional links.
Network connectivity.
Traffic patterns.
Mobility.
Fraction and frequency of sleeping nodes.

DESIRABLE QUALITATIVE PROPERTIES OF


MANET ROUTING PROTOCOLS.

The desirable qualitative properties of MANET routing


protocols are given below.

Distributed operation.
Loop-freedom.
Demand-based operation.
Security.
"Sleep" period operation.
Unidirectional link support.

CATEGORIZATION OF AD-HOC ROUTING PROTOCO

DESTINATION-SEQUENCED DISTANCE- VECTOR


ROUTING (DSDV)

Here Every mobile node in the network maintains a routing


table.
Table contains:-

All of the possible destinations within the network.


The number of hops to each destination are recorded.
Each entry is marked with a sequence number assigned
by the destination node.

Update table can be sent in 2 ways

Full dump.

Incremental update.
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CLUSTERHEAD GATEWAY SWITCH ROUTING(CGSR)

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THE WIRELESS ROUTING PROTOCOL (WRP)

The Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP)

is a table-based
protocol with the goal of maintaining routing information
among all nodes in the network.

Each node in the network is responsible for maintaining


four tables:

Distance table
Routing table.

Link-cost table.
Message retransmission list (MRL) table.
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ADHOC ON-DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING

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DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING (DSR)

The protocol consists of two major phases:

Route discovery and


Route maintenance

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TEMPORALLY-ORDERED ROUTING ALGORITHM

Fig (a) Foot creation (showing link direction assignment)

(b)Route maintance (showing link reversal phenomenon) in TORA.


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ASSOCIATIVITY-BASED ROUTING (ABR)

Fig-Route Maintenance for Source and Destination Movement


in ABR.
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SIGNAL STABILITY ROUTING (SSR)

SSR selects routes based on the signal strength between nodes


and on a node's location stability.
This route selection criteria has the effect of choosing routes
that have stronger" connectivities.
SSR can be divided into two cooperative protocols:

Dynamic Routing Protocol (DRP) and


Static Routing Protocol (SRP).

The DRP is responsible for the maintenance of


the Signal Stability Table (SST) and the Routing
Table (RT).
The SRP processes packets by looking up the destination in
the RT and then forwards the packet.
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COMPARISON OF TABLE-DRIVEN PROTOCOLS


PARAMETER

DSDV

CGSR

WRP

Time Complexity (link


addition / failure)

Communication Complexity
(link addition / failure)
Routing Philosophy

O(d)

O(d)

O(h)

O(x=N)

O(x=N)

O(x=N)

Flat

Hierarchical

Flat

Loop Free

Yes

Yes

Multicast Capability

No

No

Yes, but not


instantaneous

No

Number of Required Tables

Two

Two

Frequency of Update
Transmissions
Updates Transmitted to

Periodically& as needed

Neighbors

Periodically

Utilizes Sequence Numbers

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No
Yes (cluster head)

Yes

No

Shortest Path

Shortest Path

Shortest Path

Utilizes Hello Messages


Critical Nodes
Routing Metric

Neighbors& cluster head

Four

Periodically& as needed

Neighbors

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COMPARISONS OF THE SOURCE-INITIATED ON-DEMAND A


HOC ROUTING PROTOCOLS.
Performance Parameters

AODV

Time Complexity
(initialization)
Time Complexity
(post failure)

O(2d)

Communication Complexity
(initialization)

TORA

ABR

SSR

O(2d)

O(2d)

O(d+z)

O(d+z)

O(2d)

O(2d) or
0(cache hit)

O(2d)

O(l+z)

O(l+z)

O(2N)

O(2N)

O(2N)

O(N+y)

O(N+y)

Communication Complexity

O(2N)

O(2N)

O(2x)

O(x+y)

O(x+y)

(post failure)
Routing Philosophy

Flat

Flat

Flat

Flat

Flat

Loop Free

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Multicast Capability

Yes

No

No

No

No

Beaconing Requirements

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Multiple Route Possibilities

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Routes Maintained in

route
table
Yes

route table

route table

route table

route table

No

No

No

No

Erase Route;
Notify
Source
Freshest &
Shortest Path

Erase Route;
Notify
Source
Shortest
Path

Link Reversal
Route Repair

Localized Broadcast
Query

Erase Route;
Notify
Source
Associativit
y&
Stability

Utilizes Route Cache/Table Expiration


Timers
Route Reconfiguration
Methodology
Routing Metric

DSR

Shortest Path

Associativity &
Shortest Path &
others

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TABLE-DRIVEN VS ON-DEMAND ROUTING


Parameters

On-Demand

Table-Driven

Availability of Routing
Information

Available
when needed

Always available regardless of need

Routing
Philosophy

Flat

Mostly flat
except for CSGR

Periodic route
updates

Not required

Coping with
mobility

Using localized route discovery as in ABR and


SSR

Inform other nodes to achieve consistent routing table

Signaling traffic
generated

Grows with increasing mobility of active


routes (as in ABR)

Greater than that of on-demand routing.

Quality of Service
Support

Few can support QoS

Mainly Shortest Path


as QoS metric

Yes

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CONCLUSION
wireless networks can be deployed in either infrastructurebased mode or on an ad-hoc basis. Although work is being
done and prototype protocols are available for experiments,
mobile ad-hoc networks still have difficulties. While some basic
network control functions and routing procedures have been
developed, many
other issues require attention. Rapidly changing topology,
network partitions, higher error rates, collision interference,
bandwidth constraints, and power limitations together pose
new challenges
in network control; especially in the design of higher level
Protocols for routing and in implementing applications with
quality of service requirements.
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