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The stator winding are supplied with balanced three-phase AC voltage,

which produce induced voltage in the rotor windings. It is possible to


arrange the distribution of stator winding so that there is an effect of
multiple poles, producing several cycle of magnetomotive force (mmf) or
field around the air gap.
The speed of rotation of field is called the synchronous speed s , which
is defined by :
s is syncronous speed [rad/sec]
2
Ns is syncronous speed [rpm]
s
or
p is numbers of poles
p
is the supply frequency [rad/sec]
f is the supply frequency [Hz]
120 f
Ns
Nm is motor speed
p

The motor speed

The rotor speed or motor speed is :

Where S is slip, as defined as :

m s (1 S )

m
S S
S

Or

NS Nm
NS

Equivalent Circuit Of Induction Motor

Where :
Rs is resistance per-phase of stator winding
Rr is resistance per-phase of rotor winding
Xs is leakage reactance per-phase of the
winding stator
Xs is leakage reactance per-phase of the
winding rotor
Xm is magnetizing reactance
Rm is Core losses as a reactance

Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor

Stator copper loss :

Ps cu 3 I s Rs

Rotor copper loss :

Pr cu 3 ( I r ) 2 Rr

'

Core losses :

V
V
Pc 3 m 3 s
Rm
Rm

'

Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor
- Power developed on air gap (Power fropm stator to
'
rotor through air gap) :
' 2 Rr
Pg 3 ( I r )

'

R
'
- Power developed by motor : Pd Pg Pr cu 3 ( I r ) 2 r (1 S )
S

Pd Pg (1 S )

or
- Torque of motor :

or

Pd
Td
m

Pd 60
Td
2 N m

or

Pg (1 S )

S (1 S )

Pg

Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor

Input power of motor :

Pi 3Vs I s cos m
Pc Ps cu Pg

Output power of motor :

Po Pd Pno load

Pd Pno load
Po
Efficiency :
Pi Pc Ps cu Pg

Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor
If

Pg ( Pc Ps cu )

and

Pd Pno load

so, the efficiency can calculated as :


Pd Pg (1 S )

1 S
Pg
Pg

Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor
Generally, value of reactance magnetization Xm >> value Rm (core
2
2
2
losses) and also X m ( Rs X s )
So, the magnetizing voltage same with the input voltage :
Therefore, the equivalent circuit is ;

Xm

Vm Vs

Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor
Total Impedance of this circuit is :

Xm

The rotor current is :

'

R
X m ( X s X r ) jX m ( Rs r )
S
Zi
'
Rr
'
Rs
j( X m X s X r )
S
'

Vs

'

Ir

Rr'
Rs
S

' 2

1
2

Xs Xr

Td

Torque speed Characteristic

3 Rr' Vs2

'
r

R
S s Rs
S

X s X

' 2
r

Three region operation :


1. Motoring :

0 S 1

2. Regenerating :

S 0

3. Plugging :

1 S 2

Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor
Starting speed of motor is m = 0 or S = 1,
Starting torque of motor is : Tst

3 Rr' Vs2

X s X

'
r

R
s Rs
S

Slip for the maximum torque Smax can be found by setting :


So, the slip on maximum torque is : S max

' 2
r

d Td
0
dS

Rr'

R X X
2

1
2
'
2
r

Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor
Torque maximum is :

Tmax

3 Vs2

2 s Rs Rs X s X r'

And the maximum regenerative torque can be found as :

Tmax

3 Vs2

2 s Rs Rs X s X r' 2

Where the slip of motor s = - Sm

Speed-Torque Characteristic :

Td

Td

And starting torque (slip S=1) is :

' 2
r

Rr'
S s Rs
S

For the high Slip S. (starting)

So, the torque of motor is :

3 Rr' Vs2

S s X s X

Tst

'
r

R
Rs
S

3 Rr' Vs2

X s X

' 2
r

' 2
r

3 Rr' Vs2

s X s X

' 2
r

For low slip S region, the motor speed near unity or synchronous
speed, in this region the impedance motor is :
R'
' 2

So, the motor torque is :

Xr

3Vs2 S
Td
s R 'r

And the slip at maximum torque is :

S max

Rr'

R X X

1
2
'
2
r

The maximum motor torque is :

Rs

Td

3 Rr' Vs2

'
r

R
S s Rs
S

X s X

' 2
r

Stator Voltage Control


Controlling Induction Motor Speed by
Adjusting The Stator Voltage

Td

3 Rr' Vs2

Rr'
S s Rs
S

X s X

' 2
r