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# The stator winding are supplied with balanced three-phase AC voltage,

## which produce induced voltage in the rotor windings. It is possible to

arrange the distribution of stator winding so that there is an effect of
multiple poles, producing several cycle of magnetomotive force (mmf) or
field around the air gap.
The speed of rotation of field is called the synchronous speed s , which
is defined by :
2
Ns is syncronous speed [rpm]
s
or
p is numbers of poles
p
f is the supply frequency [Hz]
120 f
Ns
Nm is motor speed
p

m s (1 S )

m
S S
S

Or

NS Nm
NS

## Equivalent Circuit Of Induction Motor

Where :
Rs is resistance per-phase of stator winding
Rr is resistance per-phase of rotor winding
Xs is leakage reactance per-phase of the
winding stator
Xs is leakage reactance per-phase of the
winding rotor
Xm is magnetizing reactance
Rm is Core losses as a reactance

Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor

Ps cu 3 I s Rs

## Rotor copper loss :

Pr cu 3 ( I r ) 2 Rr

'

Core losses :

V
V
Pc 3 m 3 s
Rm
Rm

'

Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor
- Power developed on air gap (Power fropm stator to
'
rotor through air gap) :
' 2 Rr
Pg 3 ( I r )

'

R
'
- Power developed by motor : Pd Pg Pr cu 3 ( I r ) 2 r (1 S )
S

Pd Pg (1 S )

or
- Torque of motor :

or

Pd
Td
m

Pd 60
Td
2 N m

or

Pg (1 S )

S (1 S )

Pg

Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor

Pi 3Vs I s cos m
Pc Ps cu Pg

## Output power of motor :

Po
Efficiency :
Pi Pc Ps cu Pg

Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor
If

Pg ( Pc Ps cu )

and

## so, the efficiency can calculated as :

Pd Pg (1 S )

1 S
Pg
Pg

Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor
Generally, value of reactance magnetization Xm >> value Rm (core
2
2
2
losses) and also X m ( Rs X s )
So, the magnetizing voltage same with the input voltage :
Therefore, the equivalent circuit is ;

Xm

Vm Vs

Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor
Total Impedance of this circuit is :

Xm

## The rotor current is :

'

R
X m ( X s X r ) jX m ( Rs r )
S
Zi
'
Rr
'
Rs
j( X m X s X r )
S
'

Vs

'

Ir

Rr'
Rs
S

' 2

1
2

Xs Xr

Td

3 Rr' Vs2

'
r

R
S s Rs
S

X s X

' 2
r

## Three region operation :

1. Motoring :

0 S 1

2. Regenerating :

S 0

3. Plugging :

1 S 2

Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor
Starting speed of motor is m = 0 or S = 1,
Starting torque of motor is : Tst

3 Rr' Vs2

X s X

'
r

R
s Rs
S

## Slip for the maximum torque Smax can be found by setting :

So, the slip on maximum torque is : S max

' 2
r

d Td
0
dS

Rr'

R X X
2

1
2
'
2
r

Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor
Torque maximum is :

Tmax

3 Vs2

2 s Rs Rs X s X r'

## And the maximum regenerative torque can be found as :

Tmax

3 Vs2

2 s Rs Rs X s X r' 2

## Where the slip of motor s = - Sm

Speed-Torque Characteristic :

Td

Td

' 2
r

Rr'
S s Rs
S

## So, the torque of motor is :

3 Rr' Vs2

S s X s X

Tst

'
r

R
Rs
S

3 Rr' Vs2

X s X

' 2
r

' 2
r

3 Rr' Vs2

s X s X

' 2
r

For low slip S region, the motor speed near unity or synchronous
speed, in this region the impedance motor is :
R'
' 2

Xr

3Vs2 S
Td
s R 'r

S max

Rr'

R X X

1
2
'
2
r

Rs

Td

3 Rr' Vs2

'
r

R
S s Rs
S

X s X

' 2
r

## Stator Voltage Control

Controlling Induction Motor Speed by